At the 2013 CHOGM in
Colombo, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu offered to host CHOGM 2017.
Vanuatu is an archipelago comprising a double chain of about 40 islands
and 40 islets and rocks of volcanic and coral origin (about 65
inhabited), some islands having active volcanoes and many being steeply
mountainous, rising on Espíritu Santo to over 1,800 metres; fresh water
is plentiful. The country has more than 2,500 km of coastline.
Vanuatuans enjoy life expectancy of some 71 years.
Joined Commonwealth: 1980
Population: 253,000 (2013)
GDP: 0.6% p.a. 1990–2013
UN HDI: World ranking 131
Official language: Bislama, English, French
Timezone: GMT plus 11hr
Currency: vatu (Vt)
Area: 12,190 sq km
Capital city: Port Vila
Population density (per sq. km): 21
The Republic of Vanuatu’s land area is made up of a group of islands in
the south-west Pacific, lying south of Solomon Islands and east of the
state of Queensland in Australia.
The country comprises six provinces: Malampa, Penama, Sanma, Shefa,
Tafea and Torba.
Port Vila (capital, pop. 47,500 in 2010) and Mele (2,500) on Efaté;
Luganville (13,800) and Port Olry (2,900) on Espíritu Santo; Norsup
(2,400) on Malakula; and Isangel (1,700) on Tanna.
There are 1,070 km of roads, 24 per cent paved, most of which are on
Ferries link the islands. Additionally, there are shipping services, run
by a number of operators, to Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia.
The main ports are Port Vila and Luganville.
The chief airports are at Bauerfield, near Port Vila, and Pekoa on
Espíritu Santo Island; there are some 30 smaller airfields.
Vanuatu is a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of
States, Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation internationale de la
Francophonie, Pacific Community, Pacific Islands Forum, United Nations
and World Trade Organization.
The World Trade Organization approved Vanuatu’s accession in October
2011; the Vanuatu Parliament passed enabling legislation in December
2011; and the country became a full member of the organisation on 24
Vanuatu is a Y-shaped archipelago, some 900 km long. It forms a double
chain of about 40 mountainous islands and 40 islets and rocks of
volcanic and coral origin; about 65 of these are inhabited. Some islands
(including Tanna, Lopévi and Ambrym) have active volcanoes. Many of the
rocky islands are steeply mountainous, the highest peaks (on Espíritu
Santo) rising to over 1,800 metres. Fresh water is plentiful.
Oceanic tropical, with south-east trade winds from May to October. The
period from November to April is humid, with moderate rainfall. Cyclones
may occur between November and April.
The most significant environmental issues are that a majority of the
population does not have access to a safe and reliable supply of water
(although it is improving), and deforestation.
The rocky islands are thickly forested, with narrow coastal plains where
cultivation is possible. Forest covers 36 per cent of the land area and
there was no significant loss of forest cover during 1990–2012.
Vanuatu is home to 11 species of bat, including white flying-fox. It is
also the easternmost habitation of dugongs, also known as sea-cows.
Espíritu Santo has the richest bird population, with 55 species
including incubator birds which leave their eggs to incubate in hot
volcanic sand from which the young birds emerge fully fledged. Seven
mammal species and nine bird species are thought to be endangered
The islands of Vanuatu have been inhabited since 500 BCE, and the region
was part of the Tongan Empire into the 14th century. European sailors
visited it briefly and at long intervals from early in the 17th century.
The name ‘New Hebrides’ was given to the islands by Captain James Cook
on his visit in 1774. In 1789 the islands were called at by rescuers
seeking Captain Bligh and his officers, who had been turned loose with
provisions in an open boat after the mutiny on the Bounty.
During the 19th century French and English Christian missionaries and
some traders and planters settled on some of the islands which became an
Anglo–French condominium by 1906. The New Hebrides, as it was then
called, was ruled by separate British and French administrations, laying
the foundations for some of the problems that have erupted since
After World War II, a power struggle developed between the dual colonial
interests and the indigenous islanders, initially over the alienation of
land by the Europeans. The first major change was agreement, at a
meeting between France and the UK in 1974, to setting up a
representative assembly (with a majority elected by universal franchise)
to replace the colonial advisory council. The first national elections
followed in November 1975, but disagreements among the four chiefs
representing traditional interests delayed elections to the seats
reserved for chiefs.
Just a few months after the assembly had come into full operation in
early 1977, a second boycott brought its operations to a halt. The
largest party, the Vanua’aku Pati (VP), led by an Anglican priest,
Father Walter Lini, objected to the reservation of six seats for members
of the Chamber of Commerce. Reluctant to make any compromise agreement,
the VP went on to boycott the ensuing conference in Paris in July 1977
and the subsequent general election. A government of national unity was
formed in 1978 and, with advisory help from France and the UK, a new
constitution providing for independence in 1980 was adopted in October
1979. Elections in November 1979 gave victory to the VP, and Lini became
Prime Minister. The archipelago gained independence on 30 July 1980 as
Vanuatu and joined the Commonwealth.
After independence, the VP remained in power for 11 years, under the
leadership of Lini. During this period an attempt at secession,
supported by the Na-Griamel movement and some francophone inhabitants,
was suppressed. Lini was twice re- elected Prime Minister (1983 and
1987). After the 1987 elections, Lini was challenged for the party
leadership by Barak Sope, who subsequently formed a new party – the
Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP) – and for a brief period became Prime
Minister of an interim government, pending elections. However, before
these elections could be held, Lini resumed as Prime Minister. Sope and
several members of the interim government were arrested on charges of
treason. They were convicted but their prison sentences were
subsequently quashed following appeals from the international community.
In September 1991, Donald Kalpokas succeeded Lini as leader of the VP
and Prime Minister.
The general election of December 1991 brought in a new government, a
coalition led by Maxime Carlot Korman, leader of the francophone Union
of Moderate Parties (UMP). The coalition surprisingly included members
of the National United Party (NUP), a party formed by former Prime
Minister Lini who had broken away from the VP. The NUP itself split in
mid-1993, with Lini’s group joining the opposition, alongside the VP,
the MPP and the Fren Melanesia Party (FMP). Korman maintained his
majority, governing until the general election of 1995. The immediate
result of the 1995 elections was a coalition government led by Serge
Vohor (UMP). After two months, he was replaced by Korman. Less than
eight months later, in September 1996, Korman lost a vote of no
confidence and resigned after members of his coalition government were
criticised by the national ombudsman in her report on the uncovering of
a massive bank fraud. Vohor once again became Prime Minister.
Divisions within the government over implementation of the Asian
Development Bank-funded economic reforms led to its defeat in November
1997 and to the dissolution of parliament. On 12 January 1998 a state of
emergency was declared following rioting in Port Vila, which broke out
as 500 people attempted to withdraw their investments in the National
Provident Fund, following allegations that politicians had misused the
Fund. There was an early general election in March 1998, when a record
220 candidates contested 52 seats (increased from 50 since the previous
elections in 1995). The VP won 18 seats, the UMP 12, the NUP 11 and
other parties 11; no party had an overall majority. However, after 12
days of negotiations Donald Kalpokas (VP) and Lini (NUP) formed a
coalition government. Kalpokas was elected Prime Minister, with the
support of 35 members of parliament; he appointed Lini as Deputy Prime
Minister. In October 1998, Kalpokas dismissed Lini, excluding the NUP
from the coalition, and formed new alliances with the UMP and the John
Frum Movement (JFM). Vanuatu’s leader at independence and first Prime
Minister (1980–91), Father Walter Lini, died at the age of 57 in
During August 1999 opposition parties won three of the four by-
elections to be held, giving them control of 26 of the 52 parliamentary
seats, and putting them in a strong position to defeat the government,
which finally occurred in November 1999 after two government members
defected to the opposition and Barak Sope (MPP) was elected Prime
Minister by 28 votes to 24. However, the new government was soon
involved in political controversy and its authority was undermined by
leaks of cabinet documents to the press. In April 2001, after nine
members of the ruling coalition defected to the opposition, Sope lost a
no- confidence vote, and VP leader Edward Natapei became Prime Minister
and immediately announced there would be an inquiry into the previous
government’s controversial deal with a Thai businessman.
Vanuatu - An exotic
journey from Port Vila to Pentecost Island
Missionary life among the cannibals
Being the life of the Rev. John Geddie, first missionary to the New
Hebrides, with a history of the Nova Scotia Presbyterian mission on that
group by Patterson, George (1882) (pdf)
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