Seychelles is an archipelago of about 115 islands, spread across a
maritime zone of more than 1.3 million sq km; 41 are mountainous granite
islands, the highest point being Morne Seychellois (905m) on the largest
island, Mahé; the other islands are built of coral, and are scattered,
lowlying and sparsely populated. Some 89% of Seychelles is covered by
forest, more than any other country in the Commonwealth, and this figure
has remained constant over 1990–2010. Seychelles has one of the highest
incomes per capita in Africa – US$11,130 in 2011.
Joined Commonwealth: 1976
Population: 93,000 (2013)
GDP: 2.3% p.a. 1990–2013
UN HDI: 2014: world ranking 71
Official language: Creole, English and French
Timezone: GMT plus 4hr
Currency: Seychelles rupee (SRs)
Area: 455 sq km; maritime zone more than 1.3 million sq km.
Capital city: Victoria
Population density (per sq. km): 204
The Republic of Seychelles lies in the western part of the Indian Ocean,
north of Madagascar and 1,593km east of Mombasa, Kenya. It is an
isolated archipelago of outstanding natural beauty comprising about 115
islands, the largest and most economically important of which is Mahé.
Victoria (capital, pop. 21,700 in 2010) and Anse Royale (4,168), both on
There are 510 km of roads, 97 per cent paved; only Mahé, Praslin and La
Digue have surfaced roads. Cruiseships and cargo ships call at Mahé.
Seychelles International Airport is at Point Larue, 10 km from Victoria.
There are airstrips on several outlying islands.
Seychelles is a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of
States, African Union, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa,
Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation, Non-Aligned
Movement, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Southern
African Development Community and United Nations. Seychelles became a
member of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation on
15 November 2011.
There is a compact group of 41 mountainous granite islands, including
Mahé (the largest), Praslin and La Digue. All three have high central
granite ridges, the highest point being Morne Seychellois (905m) on Mahé.
The other islands are built of coral, and are scattered, low-lying and
Tropical. The south-east trade winds blow from May to October. The
north-west monsoon winds bring heavy squalls of rain. January is the
wettest month, July and August the driest. Temperature remains constant
throughout the year, at 24-31°C, and humidity at around 80%. The country
is outside the cyclone belt
The most significant environmental issue is dependence on rainwater for
supply of water.
The granite islands support luxuriant tropical forest on the mountain
slopes. The coral islands are also densely covered with vegetation more
characteristic of sandy coral soils. Generally, the most common trees
are the coconut palm and casuarina. Others include banyans, screw pines
and tortoise trees and the giant coco de mer palm, which is unique to
the Seychelles and lives for up to 1,000 years. Of about 200 plant
species, 80 are indigenous, including the bois rouge, the giant bois de
fer and the capucin. Forest covers 88 per cent of the land area and
there was no significant loss of forest cover during 1990–2012.
Fruit bats, flying foxes, geckos and skinks are common, and there are
more than 3,000 species of insects. The giant tortoise (which appears on
the Seychelles coat of arms) survived near-extinction; there are now
several thousand on Aldabra. There are many species of rare birds such
as the bare-legged scops owl, Seychelles kestrel, black parrot, magpie
robin and paradise flycatcher. Four islands are bird sanctuaries,
including Bird Island, which is inhabited by millions of fairy terns.
Six mammal species and nine bird species are thought to be endangered
Although visited by Phoenicians, Malays and Arabs, and used in the 16th
century by the Portuguese as a stopover point, the Seychelles remained
largely uninhabited until the 17th century.
Pirates and privateers set up bases on the islands and in 1741 the
Governor of Mauritius (then called Île de France) sent Lazare Picault to
explore them. The French claimed possession of the islands in 1756 and
French settlers from Mauritius, with their African slaves, began to
arrive from 1770.
British attempts to take possession in the late 18th century were
confounded by the pacifying tactics of Governor Queau de Quinssy, who
several times surrendered to British aggressors, then after their
departure, raised the French flag again. After the Napoleonic Wars, by
the Treaty of Paris (1814), the Seychelles was ceded to Britain,
together with Mauritius. From then until 1903, it was administered from
The Seychelles had long provided a transit point for slaves from Africa.
Britain abolished trade in slaves at the beginning of the 19th century
(abolishing slavery itself in 1834) and British vessels were active in
attacking Spanish, Arab and other slaving vessels. About 3,000 Africans
rescued from Arab slave traders on the East African coast between 1861
and 1874 were removed to Seychelles, to become labourers on the
plantations. The British also exiled some West African chiefs, who were
continuing to resist British control, to Seychelles. There was also some
Chinese and Indian settlement in the 19th century, most commonly by
Poverty was widespread by 1918, due partly to a fall in vanilla prices
(an artificial substitute having been discovered). New cash crops such
as cinnamon and copra were then introduced. In the 1940s, the
Association of Seychelles Taxpayers protested against the UK’s
management of the islands. In 1964 the Seychelles Democratic Party (SDP),
led by James Mancham, and the Seychelles People’s United Party (SPUP),
led by France Albert René, were founded. The SDP favoured retaining
close ties with the UK; the SPUP campaigned for autonomy.
Universal adult suffrage was introduced in 1967, for elections of
members of the legislative council. The council became a 15-member
legislative assembly in 1970 (later National Assembly) and general
elections were held in which the SDP won six seats and the SPUP five.
Mancham became chief minister. At the next elections in 1974, the SDP
won 52% of the votes, the SPUP 47%; Seychelles achieved internal
self-government in the following year.
Parliament then voted for independence, a new constitution was finalised
in 1976, and Seychelles became an independent republic within the
Commonwealth. Mancham became president and René prime minister.
At independence Mancham and the SDP’s policies favoured development
based on tourism and offshore financial services and alignment with the
West, whereas René and the SPUP wanted a non-aligned policy and the
development of a selfreliant economy centred on nationalised industry.
The SPUP staged an armed coup in June 1977, while Mancham was in the UK
attending a Commonwealth summit and Seychelles became a socialist state,
with René as its president and the SPUP, renamed the Seychelles People’s
Progressive Front (SPPF), the sole political party. There was extensive
nationalisation of enterprises, including hotels and industries.
There were a number of threatened coup plots against the René
government, the most serious in 1981, when about 50 mercenaries,
recruited in South Africa, attempted a landing in Mahé. When their
weapons were discovered at the airport, the mercenaries escaped by
hijacking an Air India jet, leaving five of their number behind.
However, opposition from exiled political supporters of the SDP and
Mancham continued throughout the 1980s, and was reinforced by the
turning of the international tide against centralised economic control
and one-party rule towards the end of the decade. By 1990, opposition
within the country also became vocal, and the government began to
consider the need for change.
In December 1991, the government passed legislation to provide for
multiparty democracy. Eight parties were registered by July 1992, and a
constitutional commission elected to prepare a new constitution which
paved the way for presidential and legislative elections in July 1993.
René took 59% of votes in the presidential election and Sir James
Mancham 36%; and the SPPF gained a large majority – 27 of the 33 seats –
in the National Assembly.
In the March 1998 elections, President René (with 67% of the votes) was
returned and his SPPF won 24 of the 25 Assembly seats (30 of 34 when
seats allocated on a proportional basis were included). Mancham (14%)
was overtaken by Wavel Ramkalawan of the United Opposition party (19%)
as opposition leader.
History Of Seychelles
The Seychelles Treasure
Islands, on board the Ponant
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