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Scottish Independence and Scotland's Future
Population & Immigration

Scotland has a population of 5,295,000 (first results of 2011 Census). Covering an area of 78,782 square kilometres (30,418 sq mi), Scotland has a population density of 67.2 /km2 (174 /sq mi). Around 70% of the country's population live in the Central Lowlands — region stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the major cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including major settlements such as Paisley, Stirling, Falkirk, Perth and Dundee. Other concentrations of population include the northeast coast of Scotland, principally the regions around the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness. The Highlands of Scotland have the lowest population density at 8 /km2 (21 /sq mi). The City of Glasgow has the highest population density at 3,292 /km2 (8,530 /sq mi).

Estimating the population of Scotland, as well as recording births, deaths and marriages in Scotland is overseen by the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS), headed by the Registrar-General for Scotland. Under the terms of the Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Scotland) Act 1965, the Registrar-General must present an annual report of demographic trends to Scottish Ministers (previously the Secretary of State for Scotland prior to devolution). In conjunction with the rest of the United Kingdom a decadal census of population is carried out — the last one being 2011, the next taking place in 2021.

Population and Migration in Scotland
From the Scottish Government

Migrants in Scotland’s population histories since 1850
By Professor Michael Anderson FBA, FRSE Professor Emeritus of Economic History and Honorary Professorial Fellow, University of Edinburgh. (pdf)

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