The Reivers came from families who
"rode with the moonlight" with their "lang spears" and their
"steill bonnets." There are 77 predominant family names who can claim to have
Border Clans included the Armstrongs,
Johnstones, Scotts, Elliotts, Fenwicks, Bells, Nixons, Maxwells, Kerrs, Dodds, Taits,
Howards, Cecils, Douglases, Homes, Croziers, Forsters, Grahams, Irvines, Robsons and
Storeys. These names are still common place across the Border country.
Instead of reinventing the wheel here, I am
going to list in part what Fraser wrote about some of the great riding families.
Armstrongs: (or Armstrang).
The Armstrongs held sway in the English West March and the Scottish East March. The
Armstrongs were the most feared riding clan on the frontier. By 1528 they could put 3000
men into the saddle. Some of the famous Armstrong reiving names are Johnnie Armstrong,
Kinmont Willie Armstrong, Sim the Laird, Ill Will Armstrong and Sandie his son, Dick of
Dryhope, Jock of the Side.
Bell: English and Scottish.
A great surname of the West March (Scottish), particularly hostile to the Grahams.
Burn or Bourne. Scottish,
East Teviotdale. A most predatory and vicious family of the Middle March whose raids and
murders reached a peak in the 1590s when they were under the protection of Robert Kerr.
They were the worst of the East Teviotdale Reivers and are supposed to have killed 17
Collingwoods in revenge for the death of one of their own men. Notable name: Geordie Burn
- his confession is detailed elsewhere.
Charlton (Carleton). This
was an English family although the name appears in southwestern Scotland. The Charltons
were one of the hardiest and most intractable families on the English side and were
alternately allied to and at feud with the Scottish in the west. They were engaged in a
bitter vendetta with the Scotts of Buccleuch.
Croser (Crosar, Crozier).
Mostly Scottish. A small but hard-riding family often associated with Nixons and Elliots
and often allied with England. Some notable names: Ill Wild Will Croser, Nebless
(Noseless) Clemmie, Martins Clemmie.
Elliot. The Elliots were
Scottish. Less numerous than the Armstrongs with whom they were frequently allied but as
predatory as any clan on the border. Occasionally under English protection, they received
a subsidy from Queen Elizabeth during their feud with the Scotts. Notable names: Martin
Elliot of Braidley, Little Jock of the Park, Robin of Redheuch, Archie Fire the Braes,
William of Lariston, Martins Gibb.
Forster (Forrester, Foster).
Mostly English. The Scottish Forsters intermarried with English. English Forsters were
allied with the Humes. Notable names: Sir John Forster, Red Rowry, Rowrys Will.
Graham. Mostly English but
ready to be on either side. Originally Scottish. Next to the Armstrongs, the Grahams were
probably the most troublesome family on the frontier. Their dual allegiances caused
confusion. At one time the most numerous family on the West Border, with 500 riders in 13
towers in 1552, they were savagely persecuted in the reign of James VI and I. Notable
names: Richie of Brackenhill, Jock of the Peartree, Wills Jock and many more.
Hall. English and Scottish.
At one time the most powerful in Redesdale they were hated and feared on both sides. In
1598 in an incident the Scottish Halls and the Rutherfords were allegedly singled out by
English officers as two surnames to whom no quarter should be given.
Hume (Home). Scottish. A
great name in Scottish and Border history, the Humes achieved one extraordinary
distinction as the only frontier family who would claim continuous domination in their own
March. They usually held the Scottish East Wardenship, and although frequently in trouble
with the Crown they never lost their eminence and influence.
Contributed much to the general disorder despite their small numbers. Notable name: Willie
Johnstone (Johnston, Johnstoun).
Scottish but possibly of English origin. Powerful reivers and also frequent Wardens. Their
feud with the Maxwells was the longest and bloodiest in Border history.
Kerr (Ker, Carr, Carre).
Scottish. The Kerrs were (with the Scotts) the leading tribe of the Scottish Middle March
and frequently were Wardens of such. No family was more active in reiving.
Maxwell. Scottish. The
strongest family in the Scottish West March until the Johnstones reduced their power in
the 16th century. Maxwells were often wardens.
Scott. Scottish. One of the
most powerful families in the whole Border, both as reivers and as officers. Notable
names: Walter Scott of Buccleuch, his grandson known variously as the Bold Buccleuch,
Gods Curse, etc.), Walter Scott (Auld Wat) of Haren.
I left out some Fraser listed such as Fenwick
Hetherington, Musgrave, Robson, Nixon, Storey and he lists others, both English and
Scottish in the Marches. I will list them here in the event that any of you have those
names and are interested.
Scotland: Trotter, Dixon, Bromfield, Craw,
England: Selby, Gray, Dunne
Scotland: Young, Pringle, Davison, Gilchrist,
Tait, Oliver, Turnbull (Trumble), Rutherford, Douglas, Laidlaw, Turner, Henderson
England: Ogle, Heron, Witherington
(Woodrington), Medford, Collingwood, Carnaby, Shaftoe, Ridley, Anderson, Potts, Read,
Hedley, Dodd, Milburn, Yarrow, Stapleton, Stokoe, Stamper, Wilkinson, Hunter, Thomson,
Scotland: Carlisle, Beattie (Baty, Batisoun),
Little Carruthers, Glendenning, Moffat.
England: Lowther, Curwen, Salkeld, Dacre, Harden, Hodgson, Routledge, Tailor, Noble.