It was stated in the
preceding chapter that although Air. Burns remained at Glasgow to
superintend the management of the affairs of the Cunard Company, he
frequently paid prolonged visits to London in connection with Admiralty
and Treasury negotiations. These negotiations have little interest for
the general reader, who will probably prefer to know more of the
personal history of Air. Burns and the friends by whom he was
Notwithstanding the increase in his work, he continued the habit of
writing daily to his wife, and as those letters supply the place of a
diary, we select a few extracts to show the current of his life and
G, Pall Mall East, London, May 15, 18-11.
... It is now past three, and up till this moment we (Mr. Cunard, Mr.
Maclver, and myself) have been sitting here as busy as possible
preparing our statements for the Government, which are just completed;
now Mr. Cunard is away to deliver them, and Maclver away to ask if our
American ship has arrived, and both will be back soon. Meanwhile I
remain to snatch a moment for my dear Jane.
Sir Edward Parry is on his way to Glasgow, and had I been at home I
should have asked him to take a quiet dinner with us. I have seen a
strictly confidential note and report from him in our favour, and I hope
by God’s blessing we shall succeed. . . . We yesterday saw the Queen and
Prince Albert in the Park; and Mr. Maclver and I, after writing hard all
day, went out before dinner to take a walk to Sloane Street, and, in
going up Constitution Hill, met the Duke of Wellington walking; he is
looking much firmer, and I never before got so thoroughly good a view of
London, May 18, 1841.
. . . There will be no division till Friday, and every day the present
Ministry remain in is of consequence to us, as paving the way for our
moving with their successors. I called on Mr. Colquhoun the other
evening, and he returned my call yesterday, and was very friendly. . . .
Maclver and I went to the back of the Horse Guards yesterday morning at
ten to see the review, which was a very fine sight. We had an admirable
view of the Prince Albert, Duke of Wellington, Duke of Cambridge, and
the whole of the Staff.
Lord John Russell and other ministers were groaned as they passed slowly
along, whilst Sir Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington were cheered.
Beside the Duke in his carriage sat his son and his wife ; she is very
pretty. In the afternoon we dined at Yevey’s with Napier, to his great
discomfort at getting a French dinner—tell John this. In the evening we
took Mrs. Gordon and Miss Napier with us in a coach, and drove round the
streets, looking at the illuminations, in honour of the Queen’s
Albion Hotel, Sabbath, May 28, 1841.
... It has pleased our Heavenly Father to give me another opportunity of
visiting his house of prayer in comfort, health, and peace. When I was
engaged in the service, I thought of you and our children as probably
employed in the same spiritual exercises and hearing the same portions
of God’s Holy Word, and it was my prayer that you might be enjoying the
Divine presence. . . .
Walking home from church, we strolled through Christ Church buildings at
the back of St. Paul’s, and went into the large hall, which is a very
fine one, where we saw the blue coats and yellow stockings at dinner. I
wished John had been there to see so fine a sight. Afterwards we walked
slowly on and went into the park at the back of our hotel, and had a
nice stretch of ourselves upon the beautiful grass under a hot summer
We are going in two carriages to Richmond at two, to walk about and
dine, and I am much disappointed Montgomery has neither made his
appearance, nor given us the least clue where to find him. We would have
taken him with us. . . .My heart sickens at the delay here, but I desire
to tarry the Lord’s leisure. . . .
At this period, Mr. Burns made many friendships which were of life-long
duration. In a letter, from which we have given a quotation above, he
refers to Sir Edward Parry, who in that year was engaged in a survey of
the Caledonian Canal. All the world knows Sir Edward Parry, but there
are certain traits of his character unfolded in his friendship with Mr.
Burns which may not be so universally known.
At the age of thirteen Edward Parry made trial of a sailor’s life, and
liked it. His progress was rapid. Before he was twenty-four, he engaged
in a successful boat expedition which ascended the river Connecticut as
far as Pellipague Point, and destroyed several privateers and other
vessels, in all about twenty-seven, valued at £50,000, with the loss of
only two men killed. A few years later he entered upon that wonderful
series of Arctic expeditions in which he so greatly distinguished
himself. From the day when he offered his services to the Admiralty,
sajdng that “ he was ready for hot or cold, Africa or the Arctic
regions,” until those days, when he and -John Franklin received from
George IV. the honour of knighthood, and had the degree of D.C.L.
conferred on them by the University of Oxford, Parry’s life was full of
stirring adventure, with which everybody is familiar from his own
interesting personal narratives, and from his biography written by his
It is recorded that when Parry’s expeditions returned to England there
was not a man on hoard who could not read the Bible; and there was not
one who did not testify to Parry’s unfailing power of combining
instruction with amusement. He made “Virtue” his watchword, but he
cherished a pure and simple religious faith, and through all the arduous
years of his life never neglected a constant study of the Scriptures.
How that faith ripened into rich experience, comes out in his
correspondence with George Burns. From April, 1837, to December, 1846,
Sir Edward Parry was Comptroller of Steam Machinery for the Royal Navy
and it was in his official capacity that Mr. Burns first became
acquainted with him. But the acquaintance very soon ripened into
friendship (which lasted till Parry’s death at Ems, in Germany, in
1855), and in the autumn of 1841 we find him a guest in Mr. Burns’ house
in Brandon Place Glasgow. An interesting reminiscence of the visit is
given in the following correspondence, and dates the beginning of the
“higher friendship ” :—
Sir Edward Parry to Mr. Burns.
Royal Hotel, Sunday Evening Nov. 11 1841
I do not think I shall be desecrating the evening of this holy (and to
me happy) day by endeavouring to express to you the obligation under
which I feel to you for vour kind attentions previous to, and during, my
stay in your beautiful city. Not less indebted do 1 feel to you for my
introduction to your excellent lady and pleasing family, and the
privilege I have enjoyed in the acquaintance and ministry of Mr.
Montgomery. For all these advantages I desire to thank God, and you as
His instrument. I have indeed passed a most delightful, and, I humbly
trust, not unprofitable Sabbath.
Yours sincerely obliged,
W. E. Parry.
Mr. Burns to Sir Edward Parry
Branlhjx Place, Glasgow, Nov. 18, 1841.
I shall not soon forget the pleasure derived from your short visit here
— short in point of time, but one that I believe will be remembered in
eternity. Individuals who, but for the connecting bond of Christian
love, would have known nothing of each other, except through the veil of
outward courtesies, have been introduced into a relationship through
their Redeemer that makes their spirits acquainted, and that will endure
for ever. For my own part I can truly say that during the whole of the
day after you left us I was solemnised even to the borders of
depression. Xot that I was unhappy, but too happy, yet not unprofitably
so I trust. But I was glad in the possession of your notes addressed to
my wife and to myself on the evening of the Sabbath on which we had
enjoyed a rest according to the commandment, inasmuch as they afforded
to my mind, as it were, a material evidence of the reality of that union
with Christ of which we had been conversing, and which will survive
every temporal separation which the providence of God may ordain. It is
not unusual to meet from time to time with people who must be
acknowledged as belonging to the family of God, and who as such are
entitled to our esteem and respect, and yet little more ensues. We
cannot penetrate within the circle of some cold influence that surrounds
them, and checks and prevents the interchange of Christian love. On the
other hand, we are enlivened occasionally by meeting with those with
whom in a very limited time we have much spiritual intercourse, with
very few words to express it. Such I have just felt to have been my
privilege, and were I not assured that I shall not be misunderstood when
I give utterance to these sentiments, I should not venture on their
expression. I will not say you will pardon, for I believe you will do
more, you will appreciate the frame of mind that prompts them.
Yours very truly,
Parry did appreciate the frame of mind prompting this letter, and the
intercourse which ensued was a mutual help and comfort.
Separations between George Burns and his family were sometimes long and
tedious. He was tenderly attached to his children, and everything that
concerned them had a deep interest for him.
As no man’s character can be truly known until his family life stands
revealed, a few passages from the letters of his wife and of his two
sons, John and James Cleland, written in their boyhood, will illustrate
the freedom of the family affection.
The following characteristic letter was written by John Burns when on a
holiday visit to his father in London :—
London, March 8, 1843.
Honoured Sir,—When I was walking alone the Strand, ‘West’s Optical,
Mathematical, and Philosophical Instrument Maker’s’ shop caught my eye,
and, going to the shop window, I saw articles of every description, at
least such as engaged my interest. There was a very powerful magnet in
the shop, which drew me inside, and there I saw, to my delight, a very
nice galvanic battery, which was offered at the low price of twelve
shillings. I felt my pockets, but could lay my hands upon but a single
halfpenny. Fain would I have converted the copper into gold, but I had
not chanced to bring the philosopher’s stone with me, so that the
halfpenny still retained its original value, that is, the two hundred
and eighty-eighth part of the required sum. Honoured sir, my case is
hard, but I think it enough to have laid before you the above statement
of facts, and therefore do not make any further appeal. You know what I
want, and hoping that you will dowhat 1 want,
I remain, honoured sir,
PS.— The article, it may be proper to observe, is portable.
March 20, 1844.
I have very sorrowful news to tell you concerning poor pussy. I think it
is on the point of death; it has not tasted food for three days and
looks very ill. . . . Maggie and Cousin Betliia went to Aunt Ritchie’s
last night to tea, and they went down both of them in one sedan chair.
J. C. B.
March 21, 1844
As I was standing up in the class to read a quotation from Dryden, I
what we call stuck,’ and I was laughed at.
‘Thus one fool lolls his tongue out at another,
And shakes his empty noddle at his brother.'
I must tell you also that we are afraid the cat is dying; the poor brute
has not touched food for four days, and is very weak. It got a spoonful
of castor oil yesterday, and Uncle B. recommended it a glass of wine. J.
The letters of Mrs. Burns are full of tender and appreciative love, and
the heart of her husband was made lightsome and glad because of them. We
cull merely an expression or a phrase from one or two letters, but these
will be sufficient for our purpose :—
My dear kind George, Brookfield is very cheerless without you; even the
forenoons are dull, as they are not gladdened by anticipations of your
arrival in the evening. . . .
You are God’s truest gift to me. . . .
If kindness can spoil me I must be spoiled, for never did wife receive a
greater share of unremitting tender kindness than I do. . . .
It was the 'delight of my heart’ to hear you were cheerful. My dear
husband, You can scarcely form an idea of my dependence upon you for
happiness. I hope that I am not forgetful, that it is by the Lord’s
permission, that I am given this enjoyment, nor that it can be continued
a moment without His blessing. . . .
The “gospel of the grace of God” was the burden of much of the
correspondence between Mr. and Mrs. Burns. It was everything to them.
All family joy was brighter because of it; all business was based upon
its principles; all hopes and aspirations for themselves and for others
were in subjection to it.
It was the silver thread with which the whole pattern of their lives was
Among the friends of George Burns were many distinguished preachers of
the day, and in his letters he never failed to give an account of his
personal intercourse with them. Thus he writes :—
Morlky’s Hotel, London, Sabbath, Sept. 18, 1812.
I have been at Camden Chapel, Camberwell, and truly enjoyed the
refreshing service there, and heard a sermon from Mr. Melvill upon the
words, ‘Coming boldly to the throne of grace.’ He drew a fine
distinction between infirmities and sins, showing that in the former our
Saviour partook, although not in the latter. . . .
We met Mr. Melvill on going to church. He took us into the vestry, and
Mrs. Melvill went and procured us seats. We afterwards dined with them,
and they would hear of no denial to our coming hack to dine to-morrow.
Mr. Melvill was greatly distinguished for his eloquence as a preacher,
and was at that time at the height of his popularity. He was very
intimate with Mr. Robert Napier, at whose house at Shandon Mr. Burns
first met him.
Referring to these times, Mr. Burns said to the present writer:—
After hearing him preach in Camberwell, we sometimes went home with him
to dinner at one o’clock. He said, ‘I make a point of always letting my
congregation out in time to dine at one o’clock, and the way I manage is
this: If the lessons and other parts of the service are long, I read
quicker, and manipulate my sermon to bring it down to the exact time I
have prescribed for myself.’
When he was appointed by the Duke of Wellington to the chaplaincy of the
Tower, he immediately called on us at Fenton’s Hotel, St. James Street,
saying be intended we should be the first to bear it. ‘I could not
conceive,’ he said, ‘what the Duke had wished or meant in sending for
me. When I went to Apsley House be told me that he was going to confer
the vacant chaplaincy on me, and in very terse language be expressed
what were my duties towards the soldiers; and then he added: “I give no
instructions whatever with regard to the spiritual duties you have to
perform, but leave this matter entirely untouched in your own bands.”
When Mr. Melvill was appointed Principal of the East India College at
Haileybury, Hertfordshire, he repeated what he bad done on his
appointment to the chaplaincy of the Tower, and informed us, first of
all, of the honour that had been conferred upon him. It was on the
ground of our intimacy with him that he wished these notifications to be
made first to us.
In this year Mr. Bums was brought a good deal into contact with Mr.
Thomas Crofton Croker, of the Admiralty, and soon the acquaintance
ripened into friendship. Croker was worth knowing. He started life in a
merchant’s office in Cork, where he made acquaintance with the people
and scenery of Ireland, and collected their songs and legends. Tom Moore
in 1818 expressed his obligation to him for his valuable researches.
Subsequently Croker published several interesting and important works on
Ireland, one of which was illustrated by Maclise, then, as Croker
states, “a young Irish artist of considerable promise.”
In 1819, Croker became a clerk in the Admiralty with a salary of £2 a
week, which speedily rose as he distinguished himself for his services.
At that time John William Croker, the author of “Croker’s Memoirs,” was
Secretary to the Admiralty. He was a friend of the family, but in no way
related to Crofton Croker.
A very interesting man was Crofton; he knew everybody, and could talk
with good sense and judgment on everything. Sir Walter Scott, in his
diary, describes him thus: “Little as a dwarf, keen eyed as a hawk, and
of easy, prepossessing manners, something like Tom Moore.” Choker was
well known in the learned societies. He was early elected a Fellow of
the Society of Antiquaries, and he took an active part in the formation
of the Camden and Percy Societies, and edited some of their works. Among
other subjects that occupied his attention was that of buttons, which he
considered to he characteristic of various ages, and in support of his
theory had made a remarkably good collection. Moreover, he was perpetual
president of the club of antiquarians called “The Society of
Noviomagians.” Every year this society gave a dinner at Wood’s Tavern,
in Portugal Street—“dinner on the table at half-past four for five
precisely”—to which, in 1843, he invited George Burns. There, among
other notable people, he met Mr. S. C. Hall, with whom he soon became
friendly. Ten years later, when staying with his wife at Vichy, Mr.
Burns again met him, this time in company with his clever wife, and
thereafter they became intimate. At Vichy, Mr. S. C. Hall appeared in a
character with which his memory is not usually associated.
There was no English clergyman in the place (says George Burns), and so
Mr. Hall supplied the vacancy. He read the prayers most
impressively—which is more than many trained clergymen can do—and also
an excellent printed sermon.
Crofton broker (who died at his residence in Old Broinpton, London, in
1854) was an excellent correspondent, and some of his letters to Mr.
Burns are of considerable interest. We give one specimen. It relates to
Mr. Francis Nicholson, the painter :—
Admiralty, March 18, 1844.
... I send you two or three copies of ‘Croker’s Chronicle' and at any
time will be happy in forwarding another supply, or attending to any
alterations which you may suggest for its improvement. Mr. Maclver left
town on Friday; I saw him only once or twice, and he appeared to me very
far from well. I cannot help having considerable sympathy for him, as I
think he has been somewhat overworked, which I assure you is my case.
Many a night when I have laid down my head on the pillow and tried to
sleep, I have found my thoughts as to what I had to do the next morning
going round and round like the wheel of a steamer, flap-flap, flapping
away. Add to a heavy press of official business and calculations without
end, the melancholy duties which devolve upon me as executor to my poor
father-in-law, Mr. Nicholson, and you will understand what mental and
bodily occupation is mine. I remember our speaking, more than once, of
Mr. Nicholson; he died on the 6th instant, at the age of ninety-one, and
it is a touching incident that on the Friday previous to the day of his
death, he caused himself to be helped up on a table to retouch upon the
dark ,sky of a favourite picture, and to put in a bright cloud. His mind
was clear to the last moment of his life, and he died, as lie had lived,
Yours very sincerely,
T. Crofton Croker.
The year 1843 was memorable in Scottish Church history, hut it would be
foreign to our purpose to tell of the troubles in the Church known as
the Ten Years’ Conflict, or of the Disruption that rent not only the
Church but the Presbytery of Glasgow in twain.
Dr. Burns of the Barony had passed away, and George Burns and his family
were absent from Glasgow during the whole of the stormy period when the
controversy was raging. But he took a deep interest in it, and felt its
effects, as all persons did, for classes did not come together as
formerly, and all social and religious relations were strained. His
friend and co-worker at St. Jude’s, Mr. W. F. Burnley, was a constant
correspondent, and wrote fully upon the subject which was stirring the
hearts of most men at this time.
For Mr. Burnley, George Burns entertained the warmest regard. In a
letter to Mrs. Burns, written in the previous year, when domestic trial
was distressing his friend, he said :—
1 feel the most affectionate interest in poor dear Burnley. Never any
friend held a dearer place in my heart. No couple have ever possessed
more of my tender regard than lie and his affectionate wife. 1 never
cease commending them to the all-wise protection and love of their
Saviour, who is alluring them into the wilderness that He may speak
comfortably to them, however painful may he the steps on the way.
In many a well-fought battle, as we shall see hereafter, George Burns
was to fight shoulder to shoulder with his friend Burnley. Meantime they
watched together the struggle that was going on in another held,
concerning which Mr. Burnley writes :—
Glasgow, May 4, 1843.
My dear Mr. Burns,— . . . Things are in a state of great confusion and
peril in this part of the world. There is a degree of obstinacy on both
sides, and want of Christian forbearance, that is lamentable. I have
made a point of studying the subject carefully, and I trust prayerfully,
which I think every Christian is bound to do, and I have come to the
conclusion, so ably advocated by the ‘Record,’ that it is a question of
expedience, and not one of principle, and, as such, I think the duty of
those who love the Church of Scotland is, not to leave her, but to
remain in her, and do what they can, by legal and constitutional means,
to purify her. There can be no doubt that unrestricted patronage is bad;
but I think unrestricted popular election is worse. Our good friend Dr.
Muir is getting dreadfully abused, but he quietly pursues the even tenor
of his way, preaching Christ and Him crucified, totally disregarding all
that is said against him.
He came and took tea with us the week before last, and gave us a most
wonderful exposition from Isaiah. His meat and drink seem to be to
proclaim Christ wherever he goes; he never enters a house without saying
a word for his Master, and such should every faithful watchman do.
To-day is appointed a day of prayer and humiliation by the Church, and
in the evening the churches are to be opened, and every minister, I
believe, is clearly and explicitly to give his opinion—at least such Dr.
Muir intends doing. A secession is now inevitable. . . .
Your sincere friend,
William F. Burnley.
That inevitable secession came. Dr. Muir remained in, but, as George
Burns was wont to say years afterwards when the old differences were,
happily, to a great extent forgotten, “No doubt the four hundred who
came out had amongst them the best men."
At the Disruption, James Burns, the partner in business of George Burns,
joined the Free Church, and became one of her staunchest and most
liberal supporters. He wais long a member of Free St. Peter’s, under
William Arnot and Hugh Macmillan.
One who took a somewhat active part in the struggle was Mr. Burns’
friend, the Rev. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Smith, of Cathcart, who in his old
age summed up his view of the story of the conflict and its issues in
these words : —
The work of planting a church in every needy locality, of bringing the
means of grace within the reach of every family in Scotland, was to all
appearance on the very eve of being accomplished. It was then that there
came the sudden and sad crash of 1848, and their Church was thrown back
into weakness. He saw it more feeble than he had ever seen it before. A
calamity the most deplorable had befallen them. A blow was struck, under
which their sacred fabric shook to its centre, It fell not; the rock on
which it stood was unshaken. The light of their burning bush was dimmed
for a season, but the fire within that bush was not extinguished. Their
numbers were suddenly reduced, but they were not dismayed. They were
designated, in bad taste, by some of those who left them, murtuum cajmt,
but neither head nor heart was dead. They were scoffingly named a mere
residuum, but in that residue there was a vitality that soon showed its
power. Not one of their missionary enterprises—the best of all
symptoms—though crippled, was abandoned. There were left to the Church
better leaders, with their cool counsel and experienced wisdom, to aid
them in repairing the breaches in their broken walls ; mill there came
forth, too, at the same time, young and gallant champions to
successfully maintain their cause on every field of conflict. From the
very day that sad secession took place in 1843, their progress, then
commencing, went nobly onward. From that day until this, everything, by
God’s blessing, had prospered with them. They had seen their Church not
only rise from its weakness and regain its position, but attain a higher
place in point of influence, numbers, and efficiency, than it ever held
before. He thanked God that he had witnessed it before he died, and he
thanked God for the hope that was before him that the National Church of
Scotland, the glory of our fathers, would continue to be the pride of
their patriotic children for generations yet to come.’"
Between the brothers George and John (Dr. Burns), there was the
strongest mutual affection. Each had gifts and graces of character which
the other admired, and both were in complete agreement in religious
matters. It was usual for them in times alike of joy and sorrow to open
their hearts to one another, and very beautiful are the affectionate
expressions in their letters.
In 1813, the light of Dr. Burns’ life went out. He was devotedly
attached to his son, Allan, a young man of exceptional ability, who,
with an intimate knowledge of medical science and a strong love of
anatomical pursuits, was rising fast into eminence, when intermittent
fever, contracted in the prosecution of his duties, ended his career,
after a short illness, in the thirty-fourth year of his age.
In this sore trial Dr. Burns used to write long letters to George almost
every day, in which he poured out his grief, and, in his weakness, clung
to his brother’s strength.
I am weak, and my thoughts are wandering; pray for me that I may be
strengthened and kept steadfast in the faith. I do not wish to take any
false cordial. I hope to go down sorrowing to the grave—not with a
repining, but a meek, sanctified sorrow, which shall, by the blessing of
God, keep me closer to Himself, and more weaned from the world. He has
promised to send the Comforter to His people. I know He can only be the
Comforter where He is the Sanctifier.
On Christmas Day in the same year, Dr. John Burns wrote :—
My dear George,—I am much obliged to you for your kind letter, and hope
that I shall see you soon. I am satisfied with my own situation, at
least I hope so, for I trust that the affliction is from a Father in
mercy. I realise more the prospect of death than I did in any former
tribulation. Without attributing this to any premonition or intuition, I
wish to be prepared. I am older, more lonely, and my temporal
arrangements and ties to life are broken and scattered as they never
were before. I have less to do, so far as I see, in this life. Now, if I
concluded here, it would appear that I was taken up altogether with
myself; but I wish to look to others also, and although you have not had
the sore trials I have had, yet for some time past you have had vexation
of spirit, which 1 doubt not will be blessed. We do not prize
affliction, disappointment, and crosses, as we ought to do ; they are to
the children of God precious gifts. Remember me affectionately to all.
The death of his nephew Allan was a great blow to George Burns, who
loved him almost as a son; and it was a sore trial to him that the
business upon which he was detained in London kept him away not only
from his brother, but also from his wife, who at the same time was
seriously ill, and was mourning the loss of a child. Many letters of
sympathy reached him. One from Lord Sandon—afterwards the Earl of
Harrowby, whose name is connected with so many good and philanthropic
works—was greatly appreciated.
Lord Sandon to George Burns.
Dee. 8, 1843.
I sincerely sympathise with you in the various afflictions with which
you have been visited, during your protracted stay in London. I hope you
may have the strength to bear them with as much resignation as you
displayed patience and cheerfulness under the protracted annoyances to
which the prosecution of your affair with the public offices has exposed
Yours very truly,
Mr. Burns would never lay claim personally to honours which he could
share with others. In the difficult and delicate negotiations in which
he was engaged with the Government respecting Postal and other services,
although the great burden of responsibility lay upon his own shoulders,
he received from time to time important assistance from others. Thus in
the matter of the St. Lawrence Service (the conveyance of the Canadian
mails by coach-contract between Halifax and Pictou in which the
Chancellor of the Exchequer decided against him, he wrote to the Company
through his brother James :—
I would be doing great injustice to my sense of what is right, did I not
emphatically state the obligations I consider the Company are under to
Mr. Edward Cunard, for the influence he has brought to bear on the
subject of our mission, and for his able and assiduous co-operation with
me in following it out.
The Company will, I have no doubt, readily admit that we have devoted
ourselves to the work, and have not abandoned any point while a ray of
hope remained; but the more we have laboured, the more deeply sensible
am I that without the blessing of God all our efforts would have been in
The ten months’ detention of Mr. Burns in London was not, however,
without tangible results. Among other successes, he had made a
representation to the Government, through the Hon. Sidney Herbert, that
the service performed by the Cunard Company entailed a loss to them; and
Mr. Burns effected an arrangement whereby he secured an addition of
£10,000 a year to the existing contractI