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On Emigration and the State of the Highlands
Appendix A.

It appears from the State Trials held after the suppression of the rebellion in 1715, that the earl of Winton, whose estate in Lothian stood among the first in the list of forfeitures, had joined the rebel army with fourteen men; Highland chieftains even of middling rank had on the same occasion brought along with them three, four, or five hundred. In like manner in the year 1745 the military force of the rebels was entirely raised by the Highland proprietors, though of the estates forfeited on that occasion those in the Lowlands were at least one half of the value. Pennant mentions this, and at the same time observes the small amount of the whole.—The power and interest, he says, 'of poor twelve thousand per annum terrified and nearly subverted the constitution of these powerful kingdoms.'

Of the estates to which he alludes, those in the Highlands may now be valued at about 80,000l. a year, including two or three which escaped forfeiture from accidental circumstances, though the proprietors were engaged in the rebellion. The military force of the rebels appears never to have exceeded five thousand men. There are various documents, partly traditional, which ascertain the number of men which particular chiefs could bring out previous to that era; and on comparing them with the present value of their estates, the proportion appears to be in general between ten and fifteen pounds for every man.

This sum is not far from the yearly expense of a farm-servant in the North of Scotland. In the Agricultural Survey of the Northern Counties drawn up in 1793, for the Board of Agriculture, the total expense of wages and maintenance for an able-bodied workman is computed at 9l. 10s. for the whole year. Since the date of that publication some advance has taken place; to what exact amount I am not informed, but probably about 25 or 30 per cent.

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