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Merchant and Craft Guilds
A History of the Aberdeen Incorporated Trades
Part III. Chapter XIII - The Flesher Trade

FLESHERS [15th May, 1682].—Gules, three flesher's knives fessways In pale, and on the dexter side an axe paleways, the edge towards the sinister, all the blades proper and hafted argent; in the middle chief a tower of Aberdeen. Motto: Virtute vivo.

IN the oldest volume of the Council Register we find that after the provost and magistrates had been elected for the year 1399, four ay preciatores carnum were chosen to appreciate or examine the quality of the flesh sold in the town. This, as may be supposed, is the first mention of supervision by the authorities over the fleshers, who at that time, and for a considerable period after, were the recognised dealers in fish as well as flesh. Again, in 1441, it was statute and ordained by the "avise of the haill counsall, for the commoun gude of the hale commounytie of this burgh," that "na fleschewaris, na nave vther man, nychtbour nor vnfreman, buy ony maner of fische quhill thai cum to the merkate; and yat na man buy to tap agane at the derth to the commownys ony maner of fische quhill the hight of the day be passit, vnder the panne of viii. s. unforgiffin, and eschete of the fische bot favour." Flesh and fish were sold in the same market, and the regulations that were from time to time issued referred, as a rule, to both classes of victuals, the price of fish being fixed as well as beef and mutton; and anything in the nature of keeping back to create a dearth was punished by forfeiture of the goods so kept back. The earliest regulations enacted in regard to the flesh market were as follows :—

4th June, 1444.—Item, that the fleschowaris dicht and mak clene the fleschous ilke ouke on Friday, and yat thai remove away the huches that arr in to the fleschous, vnder the sammyn payne.

Item, that na man fleschowar within the burgh or withoute sell mutoune derrar than the bouke for ij. s. viij. d. the best that may be gottin, and the remanent their efter be the price, vnder the payne of viij. s. vnforgivin, alsoft as thai trespass.

Item, that na fleshowar of within or withoute tak out of ony mutoune the neris or the nerecress fra the feest of Mychelmess, vnder paye of eschete of the mutoune to the balyies, &c.

Item, that na fleshowar sell fleshe na brek flesch in ony othir place hot the fleschous vnder the payne of viij. s. vnforgivin, alsoft as thai be taynte and esthete.—Council Register, vol. v., p. 680.

In the following year specific instructions were issued regarding the days of the week on which the fleshers were to slay; and sworn persons were appointed to fix the price and to see that all the flesh was sold in the market place under the Tolbooth. The ordinance is as follows:—

19th April, 1445.—It is ordanit be the counsaile that fra hynce forthwartis the fleschouris of this burgh sal sla ilka Setterdai at evin, or the son gang too, almyskil flesche as sal serue al the ton on Sundai at the leeste, suppose that strangearis come to the ton ; and thai sla on Monoundai the flesche that sal serue on MTonoundai and Twisdai ; and they sal sla on Wednysdai that sal serue on Thurisdai ; and they sal sell na flesche quhill it be prisit be the sworne prisaris, the quhilke the alderman and the bailyheis sal bryng to thaim, and thai be warnit quhat time that thair flesche be redy; and that thai sell na flesche vnprisit, as is forsaid, vnder the payne of tynsal of the flesche, and viij. s. vnforgifiin, and bannysing fra the craft at the third tyme. And it sail be lieveful to the alderman and balyheis for to tak, in absence of the sworne prisaris, ony vtheris gude men of the toune to prise the flesche, makand gude faith tharto. And that thai sell na flesche got vnder the tolbuth, and at it be kepit in honeste.Council Register, vol. i., p. 401.

The right to exercise two branches of trade was objected to by the merchant burgesses in 1518, and the Council, considering that the " guid toune wald not tholl yaim occupie" two crafts, passed the following ordinance :—

23rd October, 1518.—The said day the provost exponit to the toune how it was heavily murmured be the merchants of yis burgh quhow the flessaris of ye samyn occupiet and usit twa craftes that was to thair ain craft of butchering and merchandise ; wherefore ye provost charged Thomas Lavinginstoun and And. Syme, flessaris, whilkis were present for the tyme to shaw the laff of thair craft and to avise betwixt that and Monanday, eightenth day of this instant month, and chose yaim ane of the tua craftis forthwith to remain, certifying yam that ye guid tonne wald not tholl yam occupie them baith, and to give answer to ye provost in guid toune ye said day whilk they warned.—Council Register, vol. x., p. 9.

The fleshers were among the last of the craftsmen to apply for a Seal of Cause, but, like others obtained about the same date, it does not suffer on that account. It is fuller and more specific in its terms, and, as will be seen, gives a clear indication of the extent of the powers delegated to the Crafts by the Town Council :—

Be it kend till all men be this present letters, We, Provost, Baillies, Counsell, and comunitie of the burghe of Aberdene, the comone weill of the samen in that part heid sein, consyderit, and ounderstoud be us. And we being rypelie advysit therupoune to have granted, given, and committed and by the tenor thereof grants, gives, and comits to our lovites neighbours, fleshers, deacons of the craft of fleshers of the burgh for the time and to their successors in all time to come, our full, free, and plain power and authority upon all and sundry occupiers and exercisers of the said craft within the said burgh and freedom of the same to convict and punish the trespassers their unlaws, amerciaments, and escheats to be advised and modified by the foresaid deacons and their successors. And also we ratify and affirm that no freeman shall be made of the said craft tile he be examined by the said deacons or their successors deacons of the craft for the time, and that he be found by them ane sufficient craftsman and made his master stick of wark, and that he be proven worthy by his wark to be ane master and admitted by the deacons for the time and presented to us as ane able person to be made freeman. Sicklike it shall be leisome to the said deacons and their successors with the advice and counsel of the principal neighbours of the said craft to make statutes and ordinances for the common weill of the said craft and good and honor of the said burgh. Givand and grantand to the said deacons and their successors deacons of the said craft for us and our successors all powers and privileges afore written for ever. The said deacons and their successors answering to us and our successors for all and sundry their neighbours, masters, servants, apprentices, and occupiers of the said craft for all faults that lies under their correction gif they leave any sic faults unpunished or punish them otherways than they ought to do of law and good conscience. And that they do justice to all occupiers of the said craft at all times when they are required bot (without) fear or favor. And gift' any occupiers of the said craft disobeys or contemns the said deacons or their successors deacons for the time that they complain to us or our successors. And we cause them to be obeyed conform to their power, providing always that the said craft choose no deacons in time coming bot them that be responsal to the town conform to their power, and that they answer to us and our successors for the said craft and all things concerning them and their craft whenever they be required thereto. And we, the said provost, bailies, council, and community shall warrant, keep, and defend all and sundry the premises to the said deacons and their successors as said is by this writ. And attour we will and ordain that it shall not be leisome to any of the deacons above written to do or statute anything above written concerning the evil of the said craft, particularly by himself, but all they shall love, agree, and counsel together in all things they have ado touching the said craft. And sicklike their successors in time coming. In witnessing of the whilks to this present writ and power and privilege we have caused append our common seal. At Aberdeen the twenty-fifth day of April the year of God one thousand five hundred thirty and four years.

The price of beef and mutton was fixed at stated intervals by the Magistrates. On 5th October,1576, it " was statut and ordainit that na mutton be sauld in the mercat nor fleschowse bot of the pryces following, viz., the best mutton buik for xiii s, and secondar, for xii s and x s, effeiring to the guideness of the stuff, under the pane of escheating thairof ; and that na beiff be sauld in the mercat nor in the fleschowse on to the tyme that the baillies compryse, and put a price thairon effeiring to the guidness of the stuff, &c. And that the fischemercat be haldin in tyme cuming within the ayrin ring in the eistheid of the castelgett, and that the said fishmercat nor fleschemercat be in na way in tyme coining on the Sabbath day fru the ringing of the first bell afoir noon and efter noone quhill the sermon be done under pain of escheating of the fische and the fleche apprehendit to the puir folkis; and that nae middinis be sufferit nor permittet to be on the king's command yett in na tym cuming under the pane of twenty s." On 8th October, 1656, the price of the best mutton was fixed "at no higher rait than threttie sex shillings the best sort; item, the second sort two merks; the third sort according as the appreciators sail appoint, under the pains of fyve pund toties quoties. Item, the best ox beef to be sold at twelff pund. Item, the second sort at nyne poundis and under, at the discretione of the visitours under the penaltie forsaid. Item, the best ky beef at nyne pounds, the second sort at nyne merks and under, at the sicht of the visitours under the penaltie forsaid. Item, the best vaill to be sold at sex punds; item, the second sort at four punds and under, according to the worth thereof under the pains forsaid. Item, that flessaris and slayers of nolt and sheep alsweil to burghe as landwart, bring their fleshes to mercat with the hyd, heed, tallow, vncuttit scorit or spoilit vnder the paine of fyve pund the first fault, ten pounds the second fault and so furth thairefter toties quoti-es besyds confiscatioun."

The first regular flesh house or killing market was erected in 1631, as the following entry in the Register bears :--

12th October, 1631.—Tire said day the prouest, baillies, and counsall thinkes it melt and expedient for the ease of the fleshouris friemen of this burghe, and advancement of this tounes common gude, that a fleshous sal be biggit in all convenience diligence at the back of the new toun hous, on the north syd of the castillgett, and nominates George Moresone, deane of gild, maister of wark to the biggin therof wha is ordanit to provyd materiallis thereto, and the expensis to be disbursit be him thairupon, to be allowit to the said deane of guild in his comfitis.—Council Register, vol. lii., p. 31.

It was at the same time ordained "that no fleshour within this burgh shall slay ony volt, sheip, nor wther gudes, nor bestial wpoun the kingis hie streites, nor withoute housses in tyme comeing vnder the payee of fourtie shillingis to be peyit be the contravepir to the deane of guild, toties quoties, as they sal happin to failzie thairin."

About the beginning of the present century frequent complaints were made to the Magistrates about the condition of the flesh market, and an effort was made to improve matters. The Council met on 4th April, 1801, and instructed George Turreff "to employ scavengers, or other proper persons, for the purpose of collecting and cleaning the dung of the slaughter market once every day, and the sale market on the mornings of each Monday and Thursday, and to sell, by public roup, the whole of the said dung frequently, as he may find it necessary; and, after payment of all necessary charges and expenses incurred thereanent, to pay the free rouped price thereof to the boxmaster of the Butcher Trade, to be applied for the benefit of the poor thereof. And the Council farther prohibit and discharge all butchers and other persons frequenting the said markets from bringing any live cattle or carts of any kind into the said sale market, and appoints a turnstile or bar to be fixed at the south and north entries thereof next the Castle Street and Queen Street, and another bar or turnabout to be fixed on the passage between the said two markets, and the accesses or entries made out from any private houses in the Lodge Walk, or other ways into the said market, to be shut up; unless the proprietors shall agree to give the necessary declarations or obligements to the Dean of Guild, in order to prevent such entries from being afterwards claimed as servitudes upon the town's property. And, in order to acconimedate the butchers with some convenient place for holding their live cattle before they are butchered, the Council agree to fit up part of the gardens adjacent to the butcher market, belonging to William Naughton and Miss Neilson, how soon access can be got thereto, to be employed as a receptacle for that purpose; and appoint all such butchers as shall take the benefit thereof to pay an addition for that accommodation of ten per cent. upon their respective current prices."

Notwithstanding these regulations, however, the nuisance complained of remained unabated, and in 1804 the Flesher Incorporation appointed a committee to look out a site for a new flesh market. Suitable buildings were erected in Wales Street, where slaughtering has since been carried on under the supervision of the office-bearers of the craft, one of the first regulations adopted being that the boxmaster should " prosecute all those who shall persist in the practice of selling drink." [In 1807, about a year after this rea-ilation was in force, a member of the craft was fined for a breach of this regulation.] The Wales Street Market is still the property of the Flesher Incorporation, and forms the main source of their revenue.

In consequence of frequent disputes with the Shoemaker Trade about the inspection of hides, the Town Council ordered the fleshers in 1757 to give access and show their hides to the searchers and visitors appointed by the Shoemaker Trade, and also prohibited them from "selling or exposing to sale any of their hydes until twelve of the clock each mercate day, and that no hydes be carried from the mercate till the same be inspected and searched." The charge made for inspecting the hides was a farthing for each hide belonging to a a freeman, and one halfpenny to an unfreeman, one third of the dues to go to the poor of the Shoemaker Trade. The fleshers were relieved of this impost by an Act of Parliament passed in 1830.

Unlike the other Trades the fleshers did not, when they commenced keeping regular minutes, copy in their acts and statutes from their old register. That such a register was in existence there is no room for doubt, there being references in the existing;books to ordinances which were recognised and put in force at a much earlier date. But the old register is gone, and we have only the Acts passed after 1660, from which we make the following selection :—


7th September, 1704.—The said day anent the complaint given in to the court of the unneighbourly disorders and complaints made by several persons of their own members to the ruin and abuse of the craft, for remeid thereof it is ordained and hereby statutes and ordains that any person within the said craft, either master or servant who shall make any complaint to the magistrates of this burgh anent whatsomever concern without the consent of the deacon of the trade for the tyme or forget making their complaint to him shall be liable, and do hereby oblige themselves to pay to the boxmaster of the trade for the use of the trade the sum of six pounds Scots money totes quoties, and the said freeman contravening the premises to have no vote nor concern with this trade untill he pay the said sum and be pardoned be the members hereof.


7th October, 1668.—The said day it is ordained be the deacon and haill traid that all jurneymen of the flesher traid within this burgh sall serve in the first place only freemen of the said trade as long as they shall have work and employment for them, and that they undertake to serve none untill the freeman be first servit, and that they shall give of wadges for killing and brucking of ilk ox or cow four shillings Scots, and when they do not bruck the beast they shall give only fourtie pennies Scots; and for killing of every score of sheep ane merk, and ane to the score. And for brucking of everie pairt of bieff whatsomever nothing they do not kill themselves.


27th March, 1671.—The said day it is statute and ordained that non of the traid in any tyme coining sall pack nor peill with any unfreemen directly nor indirectlie, under whatsomever colour or pretext under the penaltie and censure of the traid, to be inflicted upon the transgressor, tones quoties, as any sail be found to contravene herein.

11th December, 1807.—The trade enacts that in future every entrant shall be bound under the penalty of £25, that he shall not part and peel with unfreemen in all time coming.


15th June, 1672.—It is statute and ordanit that in all time coming ilk officer of the traid sail punctuallie keep the dark door in the old church from the ringing of the first bell everie lords day ; and every other meeting whatsomever that the traid sail have; and to do the dutie punctuallie under the penaltie of six shillings tones quoties.


5th January, 1675.—The said day it is statute and ordained unanimously be the haill traid that no member thereof sail in tyme coming sell ony mutton in pieces or broken, but only in haill syds or legges conforme to the ordinar practice, and whasomever sail contravene herein sall pay to the boxmaster foturtie shillings Scots toties quoties for the use of the craft.


6th March, 1680.—The said day the haill trade unanimously statutes and ordains that in all tyme hereafter whoever shall be deacon, that he shall have a forme for his seat in the dask in the old church belonging to the trade keepit for him till the third bell be rung in, and that the officer whosoever the same shall happen shall attend his deacon and boxmaster anent the keeping of the said seat and attending of him otherwayes conform to his oath under the failyie of twenty shillings Scots for each fault toties quoties.


21st September, 1700.—The said day by voyce of court it is statute and ordained that no person or member of the said incorporation presume to villipend their deacon or give their neighbour the lye, or culuminat or abuse them in presence of the deacon at court or meeting, and whosoever transgresses in the premisses to pay to the boxmaster for the use of the Poore fourteen pennies Scots, toties quoties, and this to be observed in all tyme coming.


16th June, 1722.—The said day the traid, taking to consideration the great damage freemen in the same sustains by servants buying and selling upon their own account, they therefore, that the same abuse and encroachment may be remedied in tyme coming, do be thir presents enact, statute, and ordain that no parent or member of this craft shall allow their sons or servants to buy any goods be themselves or for their own behoof, but only that whatever goods they may happen to buy shall be entirely by their parents or masters orders and for their parents and masters behoof, certifying that any person who shall contravene this act that they will be amerciat in ten shillings sterling for the use of the poor of this incorporations. And that the transgressors parent or master shall be compteable therefor.


3rd October, 17 26.—The said day the flesher trade hereby unanimously prohibit and discharge all and every member of the said trade from receiving within their shops, houses, or on their pillars any mercate meat, beef, mutton, or other whatsomever belonging to any unfreeman flesher, and from exposing the same for sale or allowing the said unfreemen to sell the samen within their shops or pillars, and that under the penalty of six pounds scots money to be paid by the contravener hereof to the boxmaster for the time being for the use of the poor without any defalcation or mitigation.


22nd October, 1739.—The trade appoint that in all time coming every master who shall conduce with a servant for learning his trade shall enter into indenture with the said servant, and that not under the space of five years at least; and that every servant or apprentice who hereafter shall desire to be admitted freemen without serving the said five years, in case lie enter to service and serve under that, these shall noways be admitted freemen on any account whatsomever, and that any man who shall conduce for less than five years, shall be liable for such a penalty as the trade shall think proper.


16th May, 1761.—The trade, considering the great incroachments and abuses made by the servants belonging to the trade, hereby statute and enact that in all time coming no servant shall have liberty to try or sell in the flesh mercate any fleshes or bestiall for their own account, but only ane calf, the price thereof not exceeding half a crown, and the same not to be exposed till two of the clock afternoon on the mercat day; and the trade statute that any contravening this act shall be prosecuted with all vigour.


10th June, 1769.—It having been represented to the trade by the members thereof that they have been of late insulted and abused with the most insolent and opprobrious language by the servants belonging to the trade; and the trade having taken the same under serious consideration, were unanimously of opinion that the insolence of their servants had arisen to such a height as no longer to be tolerate, and, unless a stop is speedily put thereto, it will tend to the subversion of the government of the trade, they are, therefore, for remedy of all such abuses in time coming, statute and ordain that upon a complaint being lodgit by any member of the trade against any servant for insulting him in any manner of way unbecoming one of his own servant—on conviction of the offender such servants offending shall for the first transgression be obliged to appear in presence of the trade at their first Court thereafter, and in a most submissive manner ask the complainer and trades' pardon, and declare that he is sorry for the offence, and ask forgiveness of them, and, in case of refusal, to be declared incapable of serving any member of the trade, and be denuded of all privileges arising to him as a servant or apprentice to the trade, &c.


25th April, 1793.—The said day the trade having taken under their consideration that it has been the practice for some time past for entrants to this trade to give what is called speaking pints to the masters and others of the trade, and at the passing of their essay to give an entertainment of meat and drink, of which the essay made a part to the whole members of the trade at a very considerable expense to the entrants, tending to no benefit to the trades funds, or any other purpose but an abuse of money, do therefore hereby statute and enact that in time cuming all speaking pints and entertainments such as have formerly been given by entrants to the members of the trade shall be abolished and set aside, and the entrants shall be at liberty to dispose of his essay [ Like the bakers, the Seshers had been in the habit of waking a meal of the essay] after it is passed at pleasure, and be under no obligation to give any entertainment as formerly, with which practice the trade unanimously and heartily dispense in time cuming.

The essay prescribed to entrants in this Trade has uniformly been " to kill and dress ane sheep in the market belonging to the Incorporation."

Although constituted under a regular Seal of Cause, the Flesher Trade did not share in the privilege of sending their deacon to vote at the annual election of the Magistrates. They attempted to do so on more than one occasion, but on 23rd September, 1721, a minute was passed by the Council to the effect that " for some years bygane the deacon of the Flesher Trade of this burgh has presumed to come up with the trades and vote upon the day of the election of the magistrates and council of this burgh. By the constitution of this place the deacon of the Flesher Trade is not privileged to come up with the trades now to vote on the day of the election, but only the six deacons of the trades and four deacons of the old and new council, which makes ten deacons of trades, and therefore the said magistrates and council unanimously discharges the deacon of the Flesher Trade of Aberdeen, in all time coming, from coming up with the trades of this burgh to the council upon the day of the election of the magistrates and the council thereof, and from having any vote therein in all time hereafter."—Council Register, vol. lviii., P. 720.

When Dr. Guild gifted the Trinity Monastery to the Trades in 1633, no mention was made of the Fleshers in the deed of gift, but, in 1657, Dr. Guild, under the following special agreement, consented to the Fleshers being joined with the others, thus making up the number of the Trades who were to have a common meeting-house and hospital to the present number of seven :—

2nd April, 1657.—Alexander Cruickshank, Deacon-Conveneer. The Court fenced and affirmed. The whilk day, in presence of Doctor William Guild, doctor of divinity and foundator of the crafts hospital, and remanent members of the Deacon-Conveneer Court therein convened for the time, that is to say—Alexander Cruickshank, Deacon-Conveneer; William Chrystie, Deacon of the Hammermen; William Anderson, goldsmith, gate Deacon thereof, and John Gray, saidler, master of the said Hammermen Traid; John Kenny, Deacon of the Baxters, and Alexander Williamson and Patrick Murray, late Deacons thereof, and masters of the said Baxter Trade; William Anderson, couper, Deacon of the Wrights and Coupers, John Law and William Scott, late Deacons thereof, and masters of the said traid; George Morisone, Deacon of the Tailyeors Patrick Norrie, late Deacon thereof, and George Watt, masters of the said trade; Archibald Hog, deacon of the shoemakers, and Patrick Murray and John Hendry, late deacon thereof, and masters of the said traid ; John Bleinshell, deacon of the weavers, Alexander Clark and George Adam, late deacon thereof and masters of the said traid ; For themselves and in name and behalf of the haill trades of the said burgh COMPEARIT personally Andrew Watson, deacon of the fleshers, and John Craighead, late deacon of the said traid, for themselves and in name and behalf of the rest of the freemen of the said Flesher Traid. And did supplicate the said foundator and haill members of the Deacon-Conveneer Court above named that it would please the said foundator and the rest of the Deacon-Convener Court to accept, receive, and incorporate the said Flesher Traid (being freemen) amongst the rest of the said traids and to have libertie to meet and convene in the conveening house of the said Hospital and to hold courts thereintill as freely in all respects as any of the foresaid traids and hereby the said Deacon of the fleshers and remanent members of the said traid (being freemen) to have the benefit of the said hospital when occasion shall offer; And generally to exercise all and sundry other privileges as any of the foresaid traids has had or any ways may pretend to have within the said conveening house and hospital. And the said Flesher Trade being freemen to have also their right to the property and benefit of the hospital and rents belonging thereto, as any of the foresaid crafts in all time coming when occasion shall offer in omnibus as in the said supplication of the date foresaid in itself more fully perfects. TVkilk supplication and the desire of the said Flesher Trade (being freemen) the said and hail remanent Deacon-Conveneer Court thought reasonable. And all in ane voice GRANTED and ACCEPTED the said supplication. Whereupon the said Andrew Watson and John Craighead for the gracious acceptation of the said supplication for themselves and in name of and behalf of the said traid (being freemen) did instantly pay and deliver to Walter Melvill, goldsmith, burgess of the said burgh, present master of the said hospital all and haill the sum of four hundred merks good and usual money of this nation for the use of the hospital and members thereof, whilk sum the said Walter Mitchell granted the receipt thereof. THARFOR witt ye lis the said foundator of the said crafts hospital with consent and assent of the said Deacon-Conveneer Court, deacons masters and haill remanent members of the said Conveneer Court above expressed. And we all with uniform consent and assent for ourselves and in name and behalf of the hail] traids of this burgh to have give and granted, and be the tenour hereof for us and our successors gives and grants full, free plain libertie and power to the said Andrew Watsone and John Craigbeid for themselves and in name and behalf of the said Flesher Traid (being freemen) and their successors to hold courts in the said hospital or conveening house, and to be incorporate amongst us the rest of the said traids in manner aforesaid in the said hospital, and generally to have access and libertie to any benefit or portion pertaining to the said hospital. Also freely in all respects as any of the foresaid traids has had or any ways may claim or pretend to have thereto in all time coming in any manner of way, with this provision always that at what time it shall happen the said fieshers and their successors to receive and admit any freemen in time to come that the entrant freemen shall pay and give some benefit to the said hospital according to the entrant's ability, and as other traids are in use, to do WHILK above specified the said Doctor William Guild, foundator, with consent and assent of the said Deacon-Conveneer Court and they all with ane consent and assent binds and obliges their successors to ratify and approve of this present act and declaration to the said fleshers and their successors (being freemen) in all time hereafter whomsoever they shall be required for that effect and in sign thereof the said foundator, Deacon-Conveneer, Deacons, and remanent masters of the said DeaconConveneer Court for themselves and in behalf of the haill traids of this burgh have subscribed this present act and ratification with their hands, day, place, and year of God above specified. Whereunto the said act being extended on parchment the haill Deacon-Conveener Court and members thereof have subscribed the same, and in testimony thereof the said Deacon-Conveener and Master of Hospital have instantly subscribed the same.

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