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William and Louisa Anderson
Part III - Old Calabar Period, 1849-1889, & Closing Years, 1889-1895
Chapter 28

Renewed Labours in Calabar, 1877-81—The Hopkins' Treaty, 1878 — Deaths of Mr. A. S. Morton and King Archibong Ill., 1879 — Mrs. Sutherland on the Effects of the Treaty—Mr. Anderson's Fortieth Annual Report, 1879

Mr. Anderson left Scotland for Old Calabar on October 20, 1877. With reference to his arrival at Duke Town, Mr. Anderson wrote to Dr. MacGill, under date March 22, 1878:—

I arrived here about six in the evening of Monday, November 26. Mrs. A. and Mr. Ross came on board to meet me. Glad to see them and others belonging to the Mission looking so well. On arriving at the Mission landing, we found it occupied by a large crowd, waving flags and handkerchiefs, and cheering right heartily. Women and children constituted the great majority of the assemblage. On attempting to step on shore, I was at once laid hold of, and carried along part of the way. I had intended to give Mrs. A. my arm, and to walk with her quietly up the hill; but I was snatched unceremoniously from her side, and did not see her again for half an hour. I was almost carried all the way to the mission-house, amid clapping of hands, waving of handkerchiefs, and singing of hymns. On approaching the house, I was met by our warm-hearted friend Miss Slessor, who had just risen from a bed of sickness. On the following day I visited King Archibong, by whom I was very kindly received. "You be father for we." "We belong to you," were two of his expressions of welcome.

On looking round our premises, I found that, in addition to his pastoral work, Mr. Ross had done great things in the way of protecting and renovating several of the edifices. The erection of a capital dwelling-house for himself, the complete renovation of the schoolroom, and the roofing and painting of the church, represent an immense amount of anxiety and toil on his part. Greatly cheered by seeing such crowded audiences at both the Efik services.

The warfare between light and darkness still goes on. It is plain that the Egbo law, repeatedly proclaimed for the saving of twin life, is very much evaded, if not absolutely violated. The traders in the river and the missionaries met King A. and gentlemen in the king's house here, and urged on them the importance of seeing that their own laws were carried out in their own territory, and also endeavoured to show them that it was their duty to prevent deeds of blood in the small dependent villages and countries around them. A similar meeting was held in the king's house at Creek Town, when the Europeans urged King Eyo and gentlemen to use their influence on behalf of humanity in the regions around.

We are receiving tokens for good. At our last Communion, held last Sabbath, we had nine accessions to our membership: eight of these—four men and four women— were received by baptism ; the ninth was a case of restoration. One of the newly baptized is the chief of Henshaw Town. At a public prayer meeting, held some weeks ago in this town, he made a public renunciation of polygamy, expatiated on the sinfulness and the folly of idolatry, and declared his adhesion to the religion of the Bible, which he stated to be the only thing worth living for, being the only way in which we can obtain peace with God, and the only thing which will avail us in the hour of death and at the judgment-seat.

The Presbytery of Biafra met in Duke Town Church on Wednesday, March 20, and ordained Mr. Robert M. Beedie to the office of the ministry. May he be blessed, and made a blessing to many!

In regard to health, I have great reason for gratitude. I feel better now than I did during the latter part of my stay in Jamaica, and during the whole of my sojourn in Scotland. I suppose I may look on the present season as what they call in America the Indian summer. The winter will doubtless be here in His good time.

I feel quite satisfied that, in returning to Old Calabar, I have simply followed the leadings of Providence, and that I am just where the Master would have me to be. Other places have many attractions not to be found here, but their necessities are not so great. Here, truly, the harvest is plenteous but the labourers are few. And we are not only few, but some of us are feeling that we are no longer what we once were, and that our clay of active life is drawing towards evening. May we have grace given us to do the work allotted to us while daylight still lingers, for the night cometh when no man can work.

With best desires for your personal and relative welfare, and with earnest prayer that every meeting of the Mission Board may be blessed with the presence of Him who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks, and that your deliberations and desires may be guided by infinite wisdom.

On Sept. 6, 1878, an important agreement between David Hopkins, Esq., H.B.M.'s Consul, and the chiefs of Calabar, was entered into, in presence of the resident missionaries of Duke and Creek Towns and a number of the European merchants and traders. The agreement, which consisted of fifteen articles, related chiefly to such matters as twin children and twin mothers, human sacrifices, the cscrc bean, the stripping of women, and widows, and simply put a political seal on social reforms which had been carried mainly by the moral influence of the Mission and European residents. " Consul Hopkins acknowledged that such an agreement would have been impossible but for the long-continued residence and teaching of our missionaries." [Dickie's Story of the Mission in Old Calabar, p. 78, where the sis articles which are "the notes of triumph of our Mission" are given.] The text of the agreement is given in full in the Record for May 1879. Mr. Anderson highly approved of the vigour and wisdom of the Consul, and wrote: "Such a man as Consul Hopkins merits all the commendation which the friends of missions and of general progress are able to give him." In the Annual Report for 1878, Mr. Anderson wrote further regarding Consul Hopkins' visit:—

The Consul had a very busy time of it in this river from August 20th till September 14th. His court was held publicly on board the largest hulk in the river. At his special request, one of the senior missionaries invoked Divine direction and blessing at the opening of each meeting. He settled a number of trade palavers to the satisfaction of all the parties more immediately interested. He embraced every opportunity of condemning several remnants of oppression and injustice which still linger in the country. He managed to prevail on the authorities to abolish one atrocious custom connected with one of the grades of Egbo—a custom which had been dead and buried, and revived again, three or four times within the last twenty years, namely, the licence given to the runners of that grade, to strip females whom they meet in their perambulations of every vestige of clothing. He did all that man could do in the way of reproof, remonstrance, and counsel, to lead the chiefs to prohibit the Egbo runners from flogging unprivileged parties whom they may meet in the streets, but all that he could obtain on this point was a verbal promise that ample warning should be given to the populace on the morning of Egbo days, by the ringing of the big Egbo bell, ere the runners show face, and by the runners themselves being instructed to keep sounding the hand-bells attached to their persons whilst they are in possession of the town.

It was evident to all of us that the law for the preservation and protection of twin children had been evaded by the Duke Town people for a considerable period. The Consul prevailed on the authorities to re-enact the law, and to make it more stringent than before, and also to accord to the mothers of twins all the rights and privileges enjoyed by other women in the country. One pleasant result of this arrangement was, that on the coronation of the king (Archibong III.) on Sept. 6th, several twin mothers, who had been kept for years in a sort of captivity in the mission premises, were stationed within a few yards of the throne; and several of our little twin-fellows were actually sporting on the dais or platform on which the ceremony took place. I am not quite sure whether the king knows even yet of all this, but it was known, and very gratifying, to many around him.

The Consul sent out to the neighbouring town of Qua, and got the headmen there to enter into treaty with the British Government for the abolition of human sacrifices, twin murders, etc., in their territory ; and he got a promise from them that they will henceforth attend divine service every Sabbath, and send their children regularly to school on week-days. I may add that he occupied the Duke Town pulpit one Sabbath afternoon, and delivered a good plain practical discourse (of course, through an interpreter) to a crowded congregation of the natives. . . . Altogether his visit was the most pleasant, and promises to be one of the most profitable, which we have ever yet received in this quarter from any representative of H.B.M.'s Government. The sentiments of the missionaries were expressed in an address, which they presented to him after his more public work was over. I must not neglect to mention that he succeeded in settling satisfactorily an old and complicated series of palavers, which had long rendered Duke Town and Henshaw Town mutually hostile. The reconciliation promises to be lasting.

On Jan. 3, 1879, Mr. A. S. Morton, teacher, died in Duke Town mission-house. He and his wife (the eldest daughter of the Rev. Wm. Timson) had returned to Calabar on Sept. 9th, 1878. Mr. Anderson preached a touching funeral sermon in Duke Town Church on Jan. 5th, and on the 9th saw the youthful widow on board the home-going mail steamer. On May 8, 1879, Mr. Anderson wrote regarding the death of King Archibong:—

You will be concerned to learn that King Archibong III. died during the night of Monday the 5th inst, or early on Tuesday. Only eight months have passed away since his coronation, but he has been de facto King of Duke Town for nearly seven years, viz. since the death of Archibong II., on August 26th, 1872. He and I have got on very comfortably together. I have found him always ready to listen to reason, and anxious to oblige, which is more than I could say of several of his predecessors. He has been long ailing. So long as he was able he attended the Sabbath service conducted in his yard. He assented to all that was preached in his hearing, but he never seemed to be awake to its importance. It can be truly said of him that he was "a quiet prince." I shall ever gratefully remember him as the abolisher of Sabbath markets in the territory of Duke Town.

I had not seen him for several days before his death, as I knew that visitors were "not wanted." Mr. Edgerley, who is becoming known among the natives as a physician, was sent for on Monday afternoon. Mr. Edgerley at once saw that he was near his end, and doubtless did what could be done for soul as well as body. The town is very quiet. Trade and work are being carried on as usual. This indicates great improvement since the deaths of Eyamba V. and Archibong I.

I trust that our Consul will be able to discover a good successor to our late king, though I suspect that he will find it a difficult task to accomplish.

In a letter to Mr. Chisholm, of date June 27, 1879, Mr. Anderson wrote:—

We had another visit of our Consul last week. He did some more good work among us. The African Times for April contained a few notices of his procedure here in September, substantially the same as in our Annual Report, and from the same pen, too. . . .

Greatly grieved to see from the newspapers that Dr. MacGill's health [Dr. MacGill died in June 1880.] is failing, and that the Record is to have a new editor. [Rev. Dr. Jas. Brown, Paisley.] Who is the bold man who will undertake that office so long as Dr. M. is to the fore?

I have to dedicate our new (native made) church at Qua this evening. The grand new cathedral at Creek Town is to be consecrated (?) on Saturday, July 5th; and at the same time we are to ordain another native, Asuquo Kkanem, to the work of the ministry.

Miss Slessor went home by last week's mail, and Mr. Goldie will be leaving us for a time in the middle of July.

Mrs. Sutherland, who had returned to Old Calabar on Nov. 24, 1879, wrote on Dec. 16:—

I did not get to town among the people till Sabbath the 30th. I did not see that moral improvement had advanced so rapidly as I was led to expect, from the accounts given while I was at home, and after the agreements had been entered into by Consul Hopkins and the natives of Old Calabar. I could see the reason so far. The true and noble Consul Hopkins, King Archibong III., and our dear Christian brother George Duke, all having died within the year that I was away, Duke Town was left without a head. All those having passed away had left such sad blanks, especially at Duke Town.

However, there is much to cheer us on in our uphill work. The widows—who in former days were compelled to remain in their yards for years in filth and starvation —are now all at liberty to leave the place of mourning a few weeks after the death of their husbands, so that if any remain after that it is their own wish. I was pleased to see the widows of the late King Archibong moving about, some dressed in a dark print or blue gauze made by themselves, others pointing to their heads, that I might look at their nicely-plaited hair; from that I could see how long they had been out of Ikpo house, their heads having been shaved ere they left their yards; and now their hair, which I must say the}' take great pride in, had grown so that they could plait it; two or three of them had about a hundred small plaits all stuck up round their heads, reminding me of so many porcupines. What a change to them for the better! Not so many years ago, a man such as the last King Archibong having died, how many would have been put to death for him, and his widows shut up for years; and how many of them dying ere the Ikpo for the great man was made, they were not thought worthy of being put into a grave, but cast out in the bush.

Another thing which cheered my heart was to see twin mothers allowed to walk about in town and go to market. When I came here to Mr. Ross's house, I found a twin mother and child living in the yard. I saw that there was no need why she should be under the protection of the Mission and supported by us. ... I told her that we and she ought to take advantage of the agreement that had been made for her and such as her, otherwise that agreement entered into by Consul Hopkins and the chiefs of Old Calabar, as also the other agreements, if not taken hold of, would fall to the ground. I promised to visit her, to keep my eye on her; if she was sick or in want I would see to her. She said, Yes, if I said she should go, she would do so. She went off without the least fear, and seemed rather pleased with my decision in the matter. This, too, is a change for the better. . . .

The Sabbath-school children turn out well, and the attendance at church is good, though I should like to see more of the free and head men attend, and give Mr. Anderson a little more of their help and countenance ; he has far too much to do. Were he not blessed with such a good constitution, he could never get through the work that he does. The Lord give him many souls for his reward!

To few is it given in the mission field to write forty Annual Reports. It was natural for Mr. Anderson in writing his to indulge in retrospect. A portion of the Report may be given here :—

Fortieth Annual Report.

"These forty years."—On beginning this, my Fortieth Annual Report, I cannot help recalling years long gone by. It was on January 9, 1840, that I first set foot on the shores of loved Jamaica ; and I entered forthwith on the discharge of the same duties in which I am still engaged —preaching on Sabbath, and teaching and preaching during the week. On Sabbath the 18th inst. (January 1880) I addressed both native and English congregations here from the same text from which I first preached to an assemblage of sable faces on the third Sabbath of January 1840: "Choose ye this day whom ye will serve," Josh. xxiv. 15. I have seen a good many changes during these forty years, but I find nothing new to preach. It is the same "old, old story." I can cordially recommend His service and His recompense to all around. I found the grand old gospel to be the support of youth; I find it to be the staff of advancing years. What it was to me at eighteen, I find it to be at sixty-eight.

But I must remember that it is not autobiography which is at present wanted, but an account of the work and progress of the station during the past year, so I go on to my report.

The number on the roll at December 31st was 94. Sixteen of these were admitted during the year—two by profession and fourteen by baptism. There were nine children baptized. We had, as in 1878, four deaths. Two of the departed were elders, the others were members. One of the departed elders was my excellent and amiable townsman, A. S. Morton, whose early removal from us we greatly mourned. The other was George Duke, Esq., who for many years was one of the chief advisers of our late kings. It was "about the eleventh hour" ere he decided to cast in his lot with the people of God; but having once taken the step, he never resiled. He was baptized in 1875; and from the day that he  joined us, we found him to be one of the best and most useful of the native membership.

The native attendance on our Efik service has been on the whole very good. For four or five months both church and school were crowded during the afternoon service. We are back again to our usual number, a considerable portion of the people being absent from the town, this being their chief planting season. We consider 800 to 850 as being the aggregate number of persons hearing the word, Sabbath after Sabbath, in Duke Town and neighbourhood; but in connection with this number it seems only right to notice that there are multitudes connected with the chief towns who are frequently away at markets or farms for months together. Here, or elsewhere, there is a rotation of people in the town, and, of course, at our Sabbath meetings; so that, if we have a regular attendance of 850, we may safely infer that double that number has worshipped with us during several Sabbaths of the year. But there is another conclusion here involved, namely, that probably not more than two hundred either can or do attend church for fifty-two Sabbaths in any one year. . . .

After Miss Slessor left, in the middle of the year, I had no one to put in her place, so I myself took charge of the school on the Mission Hill, and have continued to teach in it regularly. I like the work well enough, but feel the want of the elasticity of earlier years; and, besides, I can do little in the way of house-to-house visitation and in superintending the other schools connected with the station. The attendance is about fifty.

The Centre School is taught by Wm. Cobham in the large yard of the house of the late King Archibong. North Henshaw Town School has been taught by James Ballantyne. The Qua School is taught by Myang Noang. The authorities are not acting up to their agreement with the late Consul Hopkins. They do not "all go to God's house on God's day," and they do not send "all children to school."

We had much to lament and much to humble us. The Church is still "few and feeble," and we have every now and then a fall. There are multitudes who never enter the sanctuary ; and many of these are our old scholars, who can read their Bibles fluently. There have been the usual number of murders and other atrocities committed in this region. We have had to deplore the death of our valued Consul Hopkins, who promised fair to be a power for good in the whole of his large consulate. We are at present under a regency, which does not seem to be an effective form of government here. As of old, "when there was no king in Israel," every chief does very much "what is right in his own eyes." Better to have one acknowledged chieftain or head, though of imperfect character and attainments, than none, or several. I have been able to do very little evangelistic work since Mr. Ross left. On his return I trust we shall be able to get on with our work more vigorously and effectively.

Besides the "Lo, I am with you," and the conviction that one is just where the Master has placed him, we had many other things to comfort and to encourage. Another year of unbroken health is a matter that calls for great thankfulness. A measure of acceptability among those to whom we deliver the gospel message is not to be despised. We have had a few more of the lost sheep gathered into the fold.

In conclusion, whether I limit my present retrospect to the year which has passed away, or extend it over the four decades referred to at the commencement, I feel called on to erect another Ebenezer, bearing the old inscription, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us."

In his Annual Report for 1880, Mr. Anderson wrote:—

... In the English service we have been tracing the footprints of the great Apostle of the Gentiles for several months. The contemplation of his marvellous career has proved interesting, and, I trust, profitable to all who have attended this service. The attendance of our European friends has generally been encouraging. I am glad to hear that our friends in the Old Calabar River bear a very high character all along the coast for sobriety, morality, and the observance of the Sabbath, which I consider to be a very important element in morality. . . .

We had a very pleasing intimation, a few weeks ago, from our Wesleyan brother, the Rev. Mr. Godman, at Sierra Leone. I suppose that more than half a century has elapsed since a certain slave-ship left this river with her freight of human live-stock. That vessel, like many others, was captured by a British cruiser; her cattle taken to Sierra Leone, and there transformed into free men and women. Among that vessel's cargo there was a youth from this quarter who subsequently took the name of Peter Nicoll. Peter cherished a lively recollection of his native region; and when he heard, thirty years ago, that the gospel had reached his fatherland, he took a longing to revisit it. He came here as a merchant, and also as an accredited member and leader in the Wesleyan Church. He spent, I suppose, about two years here, doing a little in the trading line, and greatly helping us as an elder of the Church, seeing that he had not forgotten his native tongue. The supercargo began to maltreat him, to seize his goods, etc. (a very different class of men from those here now), so that he had to return to his store in Free Town, Sierra Leone. In all our goings to and comings from home, we were welcome visitants at Peter's shop. He was a very fine specimen of humanity—fully six feet high, of benign and intelligent countenance, and, latterly, with head white as the wool. When not doing much, he might be seen sitting in his store carefully studying some portion of the Efik Scriptures, and generally with some philological question to propose. We heard of our friend's death some months ago; and I was much affected when, a few weeks ago, I received a note from Mr. God man, intimating, as one of Peter's executors, that he (Peter) had left a legacy of £50 in favour of the Mission in Old Calabar.

We have got a new king at Duke Town during the year. He was crowned, under the auspices of the British Acting Consul—as was duly reported at the time [It is to be regretted that "the few carefully prepared paragraphs about the coronation and the state of parties in the town, etc.," which Mr. Anderson sent home for publication in the Record, were not published. An account from his pen appeared, however, in the African Times for July 1880.]—on the 17th of April (1880). His style is King Duke Ephraim Eyamba IX. [In the newspapers of Dec. 22, 1896, it was stated that, on Nov. 19, "it was officially announced that King Duke ix. of Old Calabar was dead. It was believed that death had taken place about six clays previously, but, in accordance with native custom, earlier notice was not given. The intimation was signed by 'Magnus Duke'a distant relative, who said the chiefs and the people of the late monarch intended to perform the usual native rites and hold the customary 'play and devil-making.' The rites usually last for

two or three weeks, and consist of firing guns, native dances, and other revelry ; but there have been no human sacrifices since the Protectorate was formed. The British here do not allow the natives to bury the dead in their houses, but it was believed that in the case of King Duke it was the intention to inter the body within the compound [of the] house occupied up to his death by the deceased. King Duke was about sixty-five years of age, and for a long time suffered from rheumatism. He lived at Duke Town. . . . It was stated that with his death would cease the reign of the Old Calabar kings. This was also said to be the last official 'Ju Ju' ceremony that would probably take place on the river."

There are several inaccuracies in the preceding statement. King Duke was not king of the region known as Old Calabar, but only of Duke Town and its dependencies, as the late King Eyo VII. of Creek Town was king of that town and its dependencies. In consular reports, etc., Old Calabar is erroneously treated as synonymous with Duke Town. It is misleading to say that there have been no human sacrifices for the dead since the Protectorate was established. The practice was made illegal hy Egbo law in 1S50, and the Hopkins Agreement in 1878 ratified previous engagements entered into between the chiefs in Calabar and H.B.M.'s Consuls, and had practically died out in Duke Town and Creek Town long prior to the establishment of the Protectorate in 1S91. As to the burial of the dead, Sir C. Macdonald states in his first Report (p. 7) : "The native law is that all chiefs and their wives are buried in the houses in which they lived, whilst the bodies of domestic slaves and common people are thrown into the nearest bush or into the river. It would be very difficult, and lead to much bad feeling, were the first part of the native law to be interfered with at present. As, however, the graves are by the same law obliged to be from six to ten feet deep, I have made a compromise with the native chiefs to the effect that when such a burial is about to take place, notice is at once to be given to the sanitary officer, and an official is to attend and see that the grave is of the regulation depth." King Duke must have been buried several days before the public announcement of his death was made. It is probably correct to say that he is the last of the Duke Town kings. No successor has been elected at Creek Town to Eyo vn., who died in March 1S92, and it is probable that the kingship of Duke Town, which has been merely nominal since the establishment of the Protectorate, will also be allowed to lapse.] [For Portrait see p. 583.] 

As yet he has conducted himself in a very satisfactory way; much better than some of us expected. He has repeatedly issued proclamations for the preservation of twin children, and the proper observance of the Sabbath. His rheumatic ailments prevent his regular attendance at public worship. He is a liberal contributor to church collections and to certain kinds of church work.

Mrs. Anderson has had an extra large number of twin children and their mothers to look after during the year. No treaty with England, no Egbo proclamation, and no publication of even the Divine law, can speedily eradicate the superstitions of centuries. The bulk of the grown-up generation are terrified about twin children. There is a sort of agreement between the town authorities and Mrs. Anderson, that when twins are born, mother and children are to be brought to her, and she is to take care of them a few months, and then send them to their homes. There is often a difficulty in carrying the latter clause into execution. Some have no home, and most of the women find that the misfortune of having given birth to twins makes their former dwelling to be a very cold home for them. Some husbands and fathers forget to provide for such women and children. Mrs. Anderson has had a dozen of twin mothers with their children under her care during the year. Had it not been for the great liberality of our river friends, and the kindly and liberal contributions of Sabbath schools and friends at home, I do not see how we could have made ends to meet. Verily, God is good. He feedeth "the young ravens which cry," and Me provides for the raven-complexioned babies too.

Another year of unbroken health calls for renewed expressions of gratitude on our part to the Giver of all good. We feel, however, that we are "wearin' awa'," and are rejoicing in the prospect of seeing among us, ere long, fresh agents from both Scotland and Jamaica. By the time that our expected brethren and sisters reach our time of life and our period of service—say in 1920—the Efik Church should be strong and vigorous, and a centre of light to all the regions around. It is so in a small way already, but doubtless our assistants and successors shall see greater things than we can expect to witness. Amen.

To Mr. Chisholm, Mr. Anderson wrote on Jan. 8, 1881:—

. . . How cold with you! How comfortable with us! Ther. generally 74°, 7 A.M.; ?8°, noon; 76°, 7 PM. Happy clime and happy land! No snowstorms here— no hail-blasts—no colliery explosions—no earthquakes —no general elections ! Only a little confusion now and then on "the Demise of the Crown"!

My "taste and talent" for letter-writing fast evanishing. I seldom write anything save on necessary business. I have failed a good deal generally during the last two years. The right hand gets more and more tremulous— the right ear more and more deaf—the right eye more and more dim—the hinges of the system getting more and more stiff, especially in the knee region—and very little brain work leaves a considerable amount of exhaustion.

The next paragraph of the letter was evidently sent by Mr. Chisholm to the editor of the Record, in which it was published in March 1881, preceded by the following introductory sentence :—

The following extract from a letter of the Rev. W. Anderson to a friend was written without any view to publication, and is here given as another among many proofs of how outsiders are bearing testimony to the worth of our agents and the benefit of mission work :—

"On Saturday evening, the 1st Jan., about eight o'clock, a Kruman came to the mission-house with a parcel wrapped in grey paper. The mail had arrived three hours before, and I had a letter from our friend Mr. Christie, intimating that he had sent me, in a rice barrel, a small package of hasps and staples. The parcel felt heavy; and when Mrs. Anderson handed it to me, I conjectured, and said, 'Oh, this is the package of hardware; Mr. Christie must have forgotten to put it into the rice barrel, and just sent it loose.' 'But' (this was by and by)' what is the use of all this sealing-wax?' Lo and behold, a purse containing forty-two sovereigns! and a most kindly letter from fourteen of the river gentlemen, requesting my acceptance of the same. We could hardly believe our eyes, and when we had assured ourselves that the coins and the letter (itself worth gold) were realities —not phantoms—our hearts were full. We could hardly speak to each other.

"Our expenditure, especially on account of twin children and their mothers, was exceptionally heavy last year. We had, I think, twelve mothers and twenty infants, for different periods during the year; of course twelve mothers = twenty-four infants, but in several cases one child died ere the mother reached us. Our river friends were very kind during the year—sending us now and then a bag of rice, a quantity of preserved meats, flour, etc. ; then they crowned the whole as aforesaid."

A letter to Mr. Chisholm, dated March 25, was written after a severe illness, and tells of his recovery:—

I am just coming round from a very severe illness, and am putting pen to paper to-day, in way of letter-writing, for the first time for two months. I had felt out of sorts for several weeks, but kept up till Sabbath, February 20, when, after the English evening service, I felt quite prostrated, and was afterwards kept prisoner in my room for three weeks. How it gladdened me to know that though to me two of the Sabbaths were what is called "silent," the public work of the sanctuary went on all the same as if I had been present. On Sabbath, Feb. 27, Prince James Eyamba—an elder, and also superintendent of the Sabbath school—conducted both the Efik services, and Mr. Goldie kindly came down from Creek Town and preached at the English service in the evening. On Sabbath, March 6, Prince E. conducted the morning service, and Mr. Goldie (Mr. Edgerley being on an exploring expedition) came down again to our aid, and took the afternoon services, both Efik and English.

Sabbath, March 13, was our Communion Sabbath. Mr. Edgerley spent the day with us, and conducted the whole of the services. He was far from feeling well himself. I would fain have aided him, but felt constrained to be dumb. I felt deeply grateful for being able to be present at all the three diets of worship. The elders held the usual prayer meetings on week-day evenings, the attendance being much larger than usual.

Last Sabbath, March 20, I was able to conduct all the services, the elders conducting the devotional services at the Efik meetings, so that at these I had only to preach two short sermons. At our English meeting I took the lesson which came in due course, Acts xxvi., but I felt several times, while reading and commenting, as if I had erred in not reserving such an exciting and thrilling passage for one of my best and strongest days.

Brethren, European and natives, were all very kind and sympathising during our time of trouble. I cannot speak too highly of the skill and attentiveness of our kind medical friend, Dr. Mackenzie. And, to conclude, a new Ebenezer is requisite, with the old inscription, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us."

Mr. Anderson refers, in a letter to Mr. Chisholm of June 17, to an illness of Mrs. Anderson's, and to the publication of the Revised Version of the New Testament:—

Mrs. Anderson had strong fever for five days lately, which left her much reduced. She is getting round slowly. Both Mrs. Anderson and I would be the better of a little change ; and, as I wrote Mr. Williamson some time ago, if I had a colleague, possessed of common sense, such as Mr. Beedie, I could easily leave the station in his hands with comfort and confidence—but "Not now, not now, my child."

I have been wondering which of my friends, if any, would be remembering me on this day month—May 17. I suppose you would hardly guess what I mean. The Revised New Testament was to be published on that day—I wonder if anybody posted me a copy on the following Friday. I ordered a dozen copies of the cheapest kind from Mr. Christie a good while ago. . . .

The coronation of Orok as King Duke IX. on April 17, 1880, seems to have given dissatisfaction, and led to disaffection on the part of the other native chiefs. On June 17, Mr. Anderson wrote that Consul Hewett was expected on the 19th, and that the election of a king would take place the following week. On June 25, Mr. Anderson again wrote to Mr. Chisholm:—

Matters are not getting smoothed down yet. Our Consul is here just now as our lodger—came on Sabbath last, and goes away to-morrow (Sabbath) for three weeks or so; then he proposes coming back, staying with us till October, and then goes home for a few months on furlough.

He has not yet proceeded with the election of a king for Duke Town—means to do so soon after his return, and to go on with coronation soon after election.

Mrs. A. has pretty well got over her fever, but regains strength only slowly. I keep wonderfully well, though I have a good deal to do.

Mr. Anderson had (as he said in his letter of March 25 to Mr. Chisholm) " avoided all appearance of partisanship " towards any of the disaffected parties in the town who were aiming at the displacement of King Duke. The following letter, dated August 6, 1881, explains the unsettled political condition of Duke Town at this period :—

. . . Our political affairs are still unsettled. The Consul had arranged to come here on Tuesday last with our Commodore, Sir Fred. Richards, but became very unwell, and was forbidden by the surgeon of the Fleet from either travelling or working. The Commodore spent two hours with us on Tuesday afternoon, inquiring how things stand. The Consul sent orders to our acting king to get an election meeting held at once, so that he (Consul) may have nothing to do but crozvu when he returns from the South Coast (to which the Fleet doctor is taking him for health) in the end of October! I have written the Consul that he is imposing too heavy a burden on our young man. My impression is that all the electors will not meet if called on by him only, even though able to say, "By Consul's orders"! I believe that the Eyamba faction will take a pride in refusing to receive any order or instruction from the acting king. Probably both election and coronation will have to await consular visit three months hence! All this I look on as "much ado about nothing." The Consul had all the freemen before him when he read instructions from Foreign Office anent the quashing of [Acting Consul] Eastern's tomfoolery at former coronation, and could have done all that was requisite in two days (or in two hours) then, as well as he will be able to do it three months hence.

A letter to Mr. Chisholm, of date October 14-15, 1881, relates the death of Mrs. Sutherland:—

. . . Mrs. Sutherland was very poorly yesterday when I was writing, but none of us (except Mrs. A.) thought that the change was at hand. She died last evening between 8 and 9 o'clock. She herself did not seem to be anticipating death. A call to all of us, and especially to one so infirm as myself, to " be ready."

We bury the remains this afternoon beside those of her husband at Creek Town. She has been a faithful and energetic worker. . . .

In the Missionary Record for November 1881 the following announcement appeared:—

Special circumstances have arisen in Old Calabar which have led the Foreign Committee to the conclusion that a deputation should be sent to that mission field at once, and they have accordingly taken the responsibility of such a step. The Deputies will be able not only to attend to the matters that are immediately pressing, but also to do the work that would have fallen to a deputation going out in the ordinary course. The brethren who have been selected by the Committee for this duty are the Rev. David Williamson of Queensferry, and the Rev. David Marshall of East Calder. The Committee and the Church, we are sure, have every confidence in the peculiar fitness of these two brethren for such a duty—their acquaintance with our missionary operations, their soundness of judgment, and their thorough fairness and impartiality. The visit of the Deputies will be an event of very special interest in the history of the Mission at Old Calabar. . . .

The Deputies sailed from Liverpool in the Corisco on October 29. Mr. Anderson's next letter to Mr. Chisholm, dated December 31, 1881, tells of the visit of the Deputies, and of the decision at which they arrived in the questions at issue between him and Mr. Ross:—

Our friends the Deputies arrived here on the 1st inst. On the 6th they commenced investigation of Mr. Ross's palaver with his brethren; had many a long and weary sederunt—generally 9 to I, and then 5 to 9 or 10. On one occasion the evening sederunt lasted from 5 till 11.30. Such hours of business don't suit the intertropical part of the world. They closed their investigations on the evening of Friday the 23rd, and on Saturday 24th announced their finding—the chief part of which is that Mr. Ross be separated from the Old Calabar Mission and proceed home without delay.

On Saturday evening, Prince James Eyamba, with a number of his following who are Church members, sent in to the Deputies an intimation of their withdrawal from the fellowship of the U.P. Church; and on Sabbath morning Mr. Ross sent in his resignation of the office of the ministry in the U.P. Church. On Sabbath, Mr. Ross and his followers held meetings in James Eyamba's yard. . . .

I have long been considering a suggestion of your own, viz. whether I should not retire from active life. I have never fully got over the ailment which brought me to death's gates in February. Every little extra exertion or annoyance brings a return of it. I felt that if Mr. Ross carries out his present design of remaining in the country and setting up a rival cause, I am not now in such vigour as to be able to cope with the difficulties of the position. So, to clear the way for the free action of the Presbytery and of the Deputies in regard to the present emergency, I have tendered my resignation of my charge.

A special meeting of Presbytery was held, and after Mr. Edgerley had been appointed and had agreed to go to Duke Town, Mr. Anderson practically withdrew his resignation.

On January 7, 1882, Mr. Anderson wrote further to Mr. Chisholm :—

On Tuesday evening a congregational meeting was held, at which the Deputies published what they had done —specially in regard to Mr. Ross—and why they had done so.

I would rather say as little as possible on the matter, and leave it to Mr. Williamson to explain all things to you. He expects to see you shortly after he reaches home. [Mr. Williamson stayed with Mr. Anderson, and Mr. Marshall with Mr. Ross. Mr. Williamson, to ihe regret of the Churches in Calabar and in Scotland, died of fever un January 30, 1882, on the homeward voyage.]

He and Mr. Marshall have conducted the business with which they were entrusted with great care and pains, and have earned a good name among both blacks and whites. . . .

Mrs. A. still continues very poorly. Sometimes she seems as if she were passing away, but has always revived hitherto. Mr. Marshall had a good New Year's sermon at English service last Sabbath evening from " My times are in Thy hand," but she did not hear it.

I had a touching message from one of our native members on Wednesday evening,—a slave-boy who had been long ailing,—viz. that he did not think he would be alive after 9 o'clock that evening, and that he wished very much that I would allow him to be buried in the Christian graveyard. I had not seen him for some time, and did not know that the end was so near. I went off at once to see him, but he was unable to speak. I spoke to him, and prayed with him. He lingered on till 6 A.M. Thursday. We buried him with all the respect accorded to all Church members. Our Deputies were with us during the funeral service, but the congregation was such that I saw that it would serve nothing to ask them to take an)' part in it.

Both Deputies have preached to both native and English congregations with great acceptance. We have enjoyed their company very much. Of course the enjoyment would have been greater had not their visit been especially connected with Mr. Ross's case. . . .

Mr. and Mrs. Edgerley have just come from Creek Town to take up their abode with us for a time. They are to occupy Mrs. Sutherland's house.

In the preceding narrative of this painful case it has not been my aim to give such an account of it as would be proper in a critical history of the Mission. The Deputies censured Mr. Anderson for certain indiscretions, and recalled Mr. Ross, and behind or beyond their decision it is not here needful to go.



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