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William and Louisa Anderson
Part III - Old Calabar Period, 1849-1889, & Closing Years, 1889-1895
Chapter 17

Labours, 1862-1865

Tup: health of Mrs. Anderson, which had been declining for a considerable period, became such as to make it necessary for Dr. Hewan to advise a visit to Scotland. After pointing out the reasons for this step, Dr. Hewan said, in a letter dated 27th June 1861 :—

Mrs. Anderson's departure is a great trial to us all. She, of all others, can be least spared. She is not a mere local, but a very general blessing; and it is impossible for me to convey in adequate terms the admiration in which she is held, not only by the members of the Mission and by the natives, but by every European resident or sojourner. Her good works, her deeds of Christian benevolence, her laborious, self-sacrificing efforts in behalf of all classes of the community who come within her reach, will never be fully known. Many a poor creature's life has been saved through her painstaking, unwearied efforts, with God's blessing; and may we not hope that a few souls have lived through the same instrumentality? From her household have gone forth a few well-trained young women. Some of the young men at Creek Town did themselves good service in seeking wives at her hands ; and even as far distant as Ikoneto the heart of a youth at the present moment beats joyously at the prospect of carrying off one of her prizes.

And another letter from Calabar says of her:—

Were I so presumptuous as to write an epistle at present to the United Presbyterian Church, I should be disposed to borrow from Rom. xvi. 1, 2, and to say, "I commend unto you Louisa, our sister, who is a servant of the Church which is at Calabar; that ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of; for she hath been a succourer of many."

Mrs. Anderson reached Liverpool about the 10th of August. She went to stay at Dalkeith, and was twice dangerously ill. The Record remarked :—

We have deemed it right to submit to the Church these notices of a most useful woman, because we are persuaded that many have little idea of the benevolent and self-denying labours which the wives of our missionaries perform.

The following extract from Mr. Anderson's Journal shows the estimation in which Mrs. Anderson was held by the native Christians:—

Tuesday, November 19. — Much gratified to-day on receiving a visit from one of the native members of the church. When he came into my study he began a lengthened statement about the importance of Christians, members of the same church, loving one another and helping one another in times of sickness and difficulty. I was beginning to wonder what help he could be needing or wishing, or what he would be begging or borrowing.

To my agreeable surprise, he wound up by laying three dollars on the table before me, as a help to me to pay the doctor in Scotland who is attending Mrs. Anderson, with a pressing charge to "tell doctor to make her sick done quick, and make her soon come back to Old Calabar."

A useful person was removed in the person of Thomas Hogan:—

Wednesday, Aug. 4, 1861.—Thomas Hogan, the native pilot, one of the most intelligent of the Calabar people, and the most constant attender at public worship among the Duke Town gentlemen, died this day. I shall miss him a good deal. In palavers between the natives and the whites he was generally on the right side. He has frequently acted the part of Nicodemus—perhaps I should say, Gamaliel—in the native councils when mission matters have been discussed. He was possessed of no great wealth, but his superior intelligence gave him great weight among his countrymen. He has been, for several weeks, unable to articulate. When he and I had our last conversation— at the beginning of his illness—I asked him if he believed in Jesus as his Saviour, and was able to commit all matters into His hands. His reply was, "Certainly, certainly." "Well," I said, "good-bye; hold by that, and you'll find all right."

Sabbath, December 8.—Usual meetings. Was somewhat surprised to sec King A. and a considerable number of his friends in church. After service some of the young men asked me if I knew what had made him come. I replied that I did not. One of them told me it was something God had done that made him come. "What was that?" "Last Sunday, that time you speak God's word, all his people do work at his new house. Plenty of them be in a sand pit, making plaster for the walls. Then the pit fall in—cover seven men, and when they take them out, two dead. Then King Archibong promise he no will spoil God's Sunday no more." "Ah! it be true; God do that."

With reference to the translations that had been or were being made, Mr. Anderson wrote in his annual Report:—

I have not attempted any translations into Efik during the year further than has been necessary in oral instruction. I have, however, in common with other brethren, carefully revised the proofs of the Efik New Testament, now being carried through the press by Mr. Goldie. As Mr. Goldie has finished the New Testament, and as Mr. Robb has begun the Old, I feel the importance of preparing readers for the books, and endeavour to act accordingly, though this may be reckoned a more humble employment than preparing books for the readers.

And with reference to the readers he says:—

In looking over the school rolls of former years, and at the same time taking a mental sweep of the town, I think I am on the safe side when I state that I believe one hundred young people have been taught to read the Bible pretty fluently in Duke Town school, . . . and that there are fully sixty able to read the portions of Scripture already translated into Efik fluently and with the understanding.

Saturday, Jan. 18, 1862. — Stirring and solemn intelligence received yesterday per Retriever, viz., news of the death of the Prince Consort, and of the outrage on the mail steamer Trent. The flags in the river and at the mission stations have been half-mast to-day. One feeling of sadness pervades all hearts here on account of the sore bereavement of our widowed Queen. From Old Calabar the prayer ascends as fervently as from any locality in her own dominions, "The Lord bless, preserve, and comfort her and her fatherless children."

Monday, Feb. 3.—Devoured the greater part of the newly published Life and Times of Dr. Lawson. Felt the more interested in the volume that my father was an elder in Selkirk congregation when under the pastoral care of the sage. In early boyhood I was accustomed to hear my father speak in rapturous strains of Dr. Lawson.

Wednesday, 5.—Our usual congregational meeting was held this evening. The treasurer having a balance of church-door collections in his hand, it was cordially resolved to testify our congregational gratitude to the Mission Board by transmitting £7, 7s. to its funds. The sum is small, but the congregation also is small. We find that it requires a pretty considerable sum to keep our two churches, fences, etc., in repair during a year.

Friday, 28.—This has been a sore month on us on account of measles. A good many of the young people have not been able to attend school on account of the disease. A great many have died. During the past few weeks nine of my house children have been prostrated by it. A tenth has been sick of fever for a few days. Owing to Mrs. A.'s absence, I have had more doctoring, cooking, and nursing to look after than ever I have had in all my lifetime before. All of our young people arc now out of danger.

Saturday, April 12.—Great fire in town this afternoon. The premises of one of the principal native traders, Yellow Duke, including an excellent European house, barely finished, if indeed fully finished; the premises of the late King Duke, and adjoining tenements, were in about two hours burned to the ground.

Sabbath, 13.—Usual meetings to-day, and usual attendance. No gentlemen present, however. I went to the king's after service, and found them all sitting condoling with Yellow Duke. They appeared all very sober (in our Scottish sense of the word) on account of yesterday's calamity. I told them that I well knew what Yellow Duke was at that moment feeling, for, as they all knew, my house had at one time been consumed by fire. I spoke to them briefly in reference to the event. The substance of the remarks ma)' be scripturally Englished thus: "Hear ye the rod, and who hath appointed it."

Wednesday, 16.—Great sacrifice made to Ndem Efik to-day—I suppose on account of the fire of last Saturday. Some say that a new high priest of the Ndem has been installed.

Thursday, 17.—King A. and all the gentry spent several hours this morning adorning Ndem Efik's house.

Sabbath, 20.—Spoke seriously to-day to King A. after public service was over, about the wickedness and foolishness of trusting to anything, save God Himself, as a protection from fire, famine, sickness, or any other evil. He pleaded that the worship of, or rather by, Ndem Efik had been taught by God to the fathers of the Calabar people, just as He had taught the fathers of the white people to worship in Bible fashion. I endeavoured to show him that there is but one Father of all, one Mediator for all, and one Book, one law for all; and that whoever disregards this one Mediator and this one Book is a rebel against God.

Sabbath, 27.—No gentlemen save one at church to-day, all the rest being offering a great sacrifice, this being Calabar Sunday.

Monday, 28.—Set out after forenoon school to take the round of the town again, to remonstrate with the gentlemen individually against their perpetual idolatry and Sabbath - breaking. Most of them were engaged, but several of them listened with attention to my remonstrance and counsel. They complain of fires, and sicknesses, and palavers with white men. These, I tried to show them, are just the means employed by God to chastise them for their obstinate rejection of Him and His word. I told them that I would not be a true friend to them, or a faithful servant of God, if I did not warn them that their country can have neither peace nor prosperity till they change their course. Almost forgot to state that the late great reduction in the price of palm oil is one of the things which at present distresses them. This also, I assured them, cometh from the Lord.

Mr. Anderson reported that on—

June 14, 1862, King A. and all the gentlemen of Duke Town proper took a poor Albino girl slave down the river to the neighbourhood of Parrot Island, and there murdered her to Ndem Efik. Glad that neither Cobham Town nor Henshaw Town have had anything to do with the outrageous deed.

In July a cruel attack was made by the Duke Town people, fully armed, upon the defenceless inhabitants of Ekri Mimbo, and a large number of savage butcheries was carried out there and among the captives brought to Duke Town. The next entry in the Journal refers to Mr. Anderson's protest:—

Sabbath, August 3.—Strongly protested to-day against the murders of the past week, and against any countenance being shown to the murderers in their deeds of blood. I am glad to be able to record that many even of the heathens around entirely disapprove of the course pursued by King A. and friends with the Kkri Mimbo people.

Mrs. Anderson, after fourteen months' absence, arrived at Duke Town on August 31, 1862.

Monday, Oct. 27.—Mrs. A. got a dash to-day of a poor little motherless infant. The poor creature seems to have been half starved; but we trust that a little proper attendance and nourishment will effect a change on her for the better. We call her Christina Duncan, after a benevolent friend whose bounty enables us to adopt such a feeble, helpless object without additional pecuniary burden on ourselves.

Tuesday, Dec. 30.—Called upon King A. to-day, for the first time for several months. The reason of my declining so long to visit him has been—as he quite well knew—to show my abhorrence of the murders committed by him in the middle of the year. I have been repeatedly advised to renew intercourse with him. Only on Saturday last, one of our native young men put the case to me thus: "Suppose an edep-eyen—a nurse bought to take care of an infant—find her charge very troublesome, he cry, cry, cry, no will be quiet and good, she must put him down and scold him a little bit; but would it be proper for her to leave child altogether, say she no will lift him up again?" "No, it would not." "Ah, then, you see, you be nurse for King A. and we; and suppose we do bad, make palaver, but no cast we off altogether."

Thursday, Jan. 1, 1863.—Accompanied by Mrs. A., went round town to give our native friends the compliments of the season. She has not seen King A. since her return till to-day. Both of us expressed to him our ardent desire that nothing may occur again (in the murdering line to interrupt our friendly relations with him.

Sabbath, 4.—Good meetings to-day. King A. at church for the first time since the 8th of June. We began the concert for prayer in the evening.

Saturday, 10.—Brought to a termination the concert for prayer recommended by the Evangelical Alliance. Since Tuesday evening we have felt the want of moonlight a great drawback to attendance. It would be a great comfort to us, and to millions of our fellow-worshippers between the tropics, were the Committee of the Alliance to appoint the week of prayer when the whole week is supplied with moonlight. Christians in Europe, with their artificial light from gas, etc., naturally overlook such a matter as that referred to, but it is of great importance.

Monday, Feb. 2.—Commenced somewhat of a new scheme of operations here. Mrs. Sutherland having been, to my great satisfaction, translated from Old Town to this place, entered on her labours here to-day. It is arranged that she teach school each forenoon, save that of Saturday, and that I teach each afternoon and on Saturday forenoon. This will allow me to visit from house to house in the forenoon, and Mrs. S. to do so in the afternoon.

Several of the river friends gave us lectures for a few weeks in succession, on Benin, Memory, Music, etc.

Friday, 20.—After a long and severe drought, all nature revived this evening by a gentle delightful shower of about an hour's continuance. What was rather unusual for the first rain of the season—a tornado.

Sabbath, March 1.—Very few at forenoon native service. King A. (who now attends very regularly; was sick. Went to see him after service. Found nearly all the other gentlemen beside him. I proposed to them, that as they "lose church" in the proper place, we should "keep church" then and there. They were all agreeable; so I spoke with them a little, and conducted prayer among them.

Friday, April 3.—Received this day a copy of Mr. Waddell's Missionary Reminiscences} kindly transmitted to me by the author. Began at once to read it, and got deeply interested in it. It revives my own recollections of bygone days and distant scenes, of Jamaica meetings and fellow-labourers there, many of whom have fallen asleep.

Saturday, 4.— livery spare moment of this day devoted to Mr. W.'s goodly volume. A good deal of what is said about Old Calabar strikes me with all the charm of novelty. It must be pleasing to the esteemed author of this excellent book to look back in the evening of his life to a morning and midday so laboriously and usefully spent.

Sabbath, 5.—Felt disposed this morning to blame Mr. Waddell's book for any want of preparation for the services of this day, but I soon found in the native services, A.M., that the reading of the Twenty-Nine Years had been an excellent preparative for the work of the day. It enabled me to speak to them under fresh views of the grandeur of my work as a missionary, the value of the gospel, the high privileges which the Calabarese, and especial by the Duke Town people, have long neglected and misimproved, and the importance of immediate attention to the one thing needful.

Monday, 6.—Very glad to hear from a trustworthy source this morning, that when several of the minor gentlemen proposed to go on with the renewal of the palaver-house roof yesterday after morning service, King A. peremptorily forbade it, and expressed his determination to try to keep God's da)7 henceforth better than he had ever done.

Thursday, 30.—Since Mrs. Sutherland entered on the discharge of her duties at this station, three months ago, I have been relieved of half of the work of the school, and have thus been enabled to devote more time than formerly to the very important work of teaching "from house to house." But a "house" here is equal in population to a "village" with you; some of our houses, with their various "yards" being occupied by one hundred persons. To teach here from house to house is thus to teach "publicly."

Friday, 31.—The Rev. Win. and Mrs. Timson (Miss Barty); reached Calabar.

In his annual Report for 1863 Mr. Anderson wrote regarding his visitation work :—

Since I was relieved (by Mrs. Sutherland) of the half of the work of the school, I have devoted the forenoon to going from house to house. I find that it scarcely holds here as yet, that a "house-going minister makes a church-going people." It seems rather otherwise, yet it is just what might be expected. Such are the indolence and listlessness (in regard to spiritual matters) of many, that the}' profess to consider it enough that they hear the word of God in their own houses. Why should they trouble themselves to go elsewhere to hear God's word? This department of duty is, however, very important. Multitudes cannot get, and multitudes more will not go to the public services of the sanctuary; so the only way to reach them is to go to them. One thing has struck me a good deal in my visitations, namely, the knowledge of several important Scripture truths among some who have never attended either church or school. . . . Some old people have learned Christ's name and something of His work from their children. I spend some interesting and happy hours in endeavouring to explain to willing learners "the first principles of the oracles of God." Mrs. Anderson has been unable to visit during the latter portion of the year. Mrs. Sutherland, with her usual energy, devotes the afternoon to visiting and instructing the women, of whom a large number is to be found in every house, inaccessible to any teachers but females.

Another year of unbroken health calls loudly fur a tribute of praise to the Giver of all good. Oh to be enabled to make a suitable return! Five years and a half have now elapsed since my return to this country. I believe that I have now the privilege of returning home for a season; but I have no inclination to avail myself of the privilege. I cordially sympathise with the wish of my yokefellow, and have no desire to leave the soil of Calabar again till the resurrection morning. In so far as my intercourse with the natives is concerned, this has been the busiest, and, I may add, the happiest (probably because the busiest) year which I have spent among them. Perhaps I have erred in confining myself too much to school duties during previous years, thus allowing too little time for dealing with the adult population. I must now endeavour "to redeem the time" by double diligence. One thing I long to see—that is, the quickening influence of Him whose office it is to "breathe upon these slain that they may live."

Sabbath, Jan. 3, 1864.—Usual meetings. Much larger attendance than usual at the English service P.M. I accept this as "a token for good." King A. agreed during the week to allow the large town bell to be rung for public worship each Sabbath morning, beginning to-day; but behold, when the time came, "tongue no live." The bell itself was taken down and concealed during "man-of-war palaver" in May 1862, and has only lately been reining, and has not yet been used. I was authorised to ring the bell in the Egbo palaver-house, but it was found lying flat on the ground, and of course dumb.

Sabbath, 10.—New cases of smallpox. The large bell could not be rung to-day, lest the demon of the disease should be irritated, and become more severe in his operations. All sorts of noises, such as drum-beating, bell-ringing, etc., are strictly forbidden. There is, withal, a solemn feeling in the minds of the people which may prove beneficial.

Tuesday, 26.—Dr. Hewan I gave us a lecture on the prevalent malady, smallpox. Another medical gentleman who was present pronounced a high eulogium on the lecture.

Thursdays 1.— Mrs. Edgerley and Mrs. Sutherland both very busy to-day—as they have been for some time past —in vaccinating great numbers of the natives, the great proportion of whom seem very anxious to undergo the operation.

Saturday, 20.—Mrs. A., who is seldom able to go to town, felt sufficiently vigorous to-day to warrant her to share in a measure with the other ladies in the good work of vaccination. She vaccinated King A. and others. Mrs. E. had already had the honour of operating on his Majesty, but no vesicle was produced.

Sabbath, April 10. — Eighteenth anniversary of the arrival of the Mission. Took notice of this at all our meetings. Had a long and interesting conversation about midday with Mohammed—a native of Hausaland, now a slave, or rather servant, to a gentleman from Bonny who has been for several years resident here, who wishes to renounce the religion of the False Prophet and profess Christianity. He is pretty intelligent, but needs to be further instructed in the doctrine of Christ.

Saturday, May 28. — Usual turn round town. Eyo Archibong, our king's only full brother, died yesterday, and I found all the gentlemen engaged in preparations for the funeral. Poor prospect for to-morrow's meeting in town.

Sabbath, 29.—As anticipated, but a small attendance at town meeting A.M. As a preacher, Death does not yet constrain the Calabarese to go to the sanctuary. Mr. Edgerley and I exchanged P.M., he addressing the English congregation at Duke Town, and I the Efik meeting at Old Town.

Friday, July 1.—Finished perusal of Mr. Robb's MS. translation of the Pentateuch. I did not begin the study of Efik yesterday, and it seems but right for me to say that I have read Mr. R.'s translation with both pleasure and profit. I consider that he has made a capital job of it. I trust we shall soon have the books of Moses in print, without the comments of another African bishop [Colenso].

Sabbath, 3.—Mail arrived, p.m., bringing to us the sad and unexpected intelligence of the death of Rev. J. Baillie. It seems but the other day that he left us in hope of a speedy return. "Frail man!"

Sabbath, 10.—At the close of sermon this P.M., made a short statement in reference to our departed friend, Rev. J. Baillie, who had several times, but too seldom, proclaimed to us the words of eternal life. All here sympathise deeply with his bereaved brothers.

Sabbath, 17.—One of our countrymen received into Church fellowship. His mind was not fully made up on Friday evening, but was so to-day, thanks in great measure to Rev. Dr. Andrew Thomson's little work on "Early Communicating." This is not the first time that that valuable treatise has done good service here. Mr. Edgerley was to have dispensed the Communion to-day among us, but was prevented by sickness. We had a comfortable season. Thirty-one sat at the table of the Lord.

Monday, 25.—Finished my fifth transcription of the Book of Proverbs in Efik. I translated the book a number of years ago, but for various reasons kept it in hand. Some of us are of opinion that it would be well to have it in circulation among our young people, and hence the revision just finished.

Thursday, 28.—Our usual English prayer meeting this evening. Had the happiness of receiving, by baptism, into the fellowship of the Church, William Cobham,1 a young man, a slave, belonging to (how grating these words!) Henry Cobham. William has been for years waiting on the means of instruction, and conducting himself in a very becoming way. One of his letters appeared in the Juvonile Missionary Magazine some time ago.

The following is the letter:—

October 1 /10 63.

Mv Dear Loved Master - I have to tell you this tiling about myself, that I was very sorry about trouble with myself. Sir, I was very glad for joining- myself for church, but the thing that make me sorrow, because in Calabar here, if boy like me try to go for God's side, Calabar man, or woman, or your friend, or your father, or your father's son, make you spoil and then turn back from Cod's word. Suppose a boy like me, they say, How we born, here we not know God's word, and poor slave like you want to know God's word past we ? You want to do good for God; God like you past we? So Calabar be; suppose they no like God's word to hear, so they no like their people hear and follow God's word. My dear sir, I been follow that word you been ask me say: Suppose you sit for God's table, then your father and all his sons come sec that, they no vexed with you? So I see it be true. Bui sometimes my heart tell me say: If you will for true to follow God, and cast yourself for Jesus to keep Him as your Saviour, then anything that trouble you, you need to care nothing about. So I think some time, when my heart trouble me, say: This country no good for you; but every day carefully [carefulness, anxiety] trouble my heart all time and all night still, so I try to agreed for [arrange with] you to take me out of this country. If you please to do so for me, God shall blessed you. If no be so, if I do wrong to agreed, so please tell me again; but I pray for God to help me every morning I rise up, and every night I lie down.--Truly yours, Wm. Copham.

You will see from the above that poor William had no hope of being able to follow Christ fully unless he were taken out of this country. He is in much better spirits now than when he wrote the above letter; and I trust that the day is not far distant when he shall take his place among the professed followers of the Lamb.

Tuesday, August 23.—Amused and gratified in going through market this morning by perceiving what I may call a book-stall. The collection exposed for sale was very limited, however, consisting only of a few numbers of the Illustrated London News, 60 coppers (= 1s. 6d.) per copy, and of Fun at a lower rate. The seller, a boy to me unknown, seemed to meet with considerable demand for his wares. Oh could the surrounding hundreds read !

Tuesday, 30.—The sixth annual meeting of the Presbytery of Biafra was held to-day at Duke Town. Mr. Goldie, the retiring moderator, preached a very solemn, searching, and suitable sermon from 1 Cor. ix. 27, last clause. Intimation of the sermon had been made on the Sabbath, and the attendance both of Europeans and natives was, considering the state of the weather, very respectable.

Monday, Sept. 12.—A somewhat novel penalty inflicted to-day on the eldest son of one of our late kings. Being unable to pay his debts, he was publicly deprived of all his Egbo privileges. There is a good deal of muttering against King A. for resorting to such a step with such a personage—a prince of the blood. It is said that such a thing has never been done before. I rather like to see a new thing of this stamp, seeing it furnishes a new argument against idolising old customs merely because they are old.

Thursday, 15.— Heard good news to-day—viz., that two clays ago King A. called his people together and publicly declared to them his disbelief in Idiong and all the old superstitions of the country; his belief in the truth of God's word, seeing his own heart tells him that what the missionaries teach from that word is true; and his resolution to become a "good man" himself, as soon as his brother's ikpo is over. He called upon all his people to witness that he had done everything that could be done, according to Efik fashion, for the recovery of his brother, and that all had failed, because God "no will that his brother get better." This sentiment was, God only was to be feared and prayed to. I earnestly pray that his feelings may be permanent.

Wednesday, Oct. 12.—Visited Ikorofiong for the first time for several years. Stood by the graves of Mrs. Baillie and her Willie. My memory went off to bygone days and a far-off land. For several years she was one of my brightest scholars in Jamaica. When last I saw her, in Duke Town mission-house, she was nursing simultaneously her own fair child and his black foster-brother. Here, in this quiet corner, all three slumber quietly. What a glorious waking awaits them!

Saturday, 29.—In going my usual rounds to-day, met with two things somewhat encouraging: George Duke took down a Bible, adjusted his spectacles, and read to me, very correctly, the third chapter of Genesis. Went afterwards to King A.'s, and found him to be quite in an inquiring mood. Had an interesting conversation with him about the one thing needful. He repeated to me his feelings and purposes as hinted above. I gave him what encouragement I could to do as well as to purpose.

Sabbath, Nov. 6.— Gave notice to-day during both services—English and Efik—of the week of prayer appointed by the Synod of our Church on behalf of its Foreign Missions. Read and explained minute of Synod, and tried to impress upon all who heard me that it would be most shameful, while others are praying for us, if we pray not for ourselves. Not to tax our countrymen's time too much, I intimated that there should be only two public English services during the week, one of them to be conducted by Mr. Edgerley. Recommended private and social prayer on behalf of the Home Church, as well as on our own behalf, and on behalf of other mission fields.

Friday, 11.—All the meetings have been well attended. We shall now look for showers of blessings, though I can hardly say that there is, as yet, here any "sound of abundance of rain."

Tuesday, 29.—It has long been felt among us that we ought to have a more suitable and commodious place of worship than the present. A congregational meeting was held this evening to make some definite arrangement in regard to the matter. The treasurer's report was so favourable and encouraging, that a committee was appointed to set about the work with as little delay as possible.

Tuesday, Dec. 6.—Our sixth course of lectures was commenced this evening. After a brief resume of the previous courses, I called attention to "Daniel as a Pattern to Young Men."

Tuesday, 13.—Mr. Goldie gave an excellent lecture this evening on "The Advantages of being Young."

In his annual Report for 1864 Mr. Anderson wrote regarding the efforts that were being made to raise funds for a new church on the Mission Hill:—

The want of a more commodious place of worship has long been felt by us, and measures have been adopted for supplying the desideratum. Native gentlemen (not Christians), river gentlemen (not connected with the Church), brethren of the Mission, and most of the members of the Church, have entered into the scheme very heartily; and, to my mind, the list of contributions and contributors is a very satisfactory and gratifying one. It is but due to state that the originator of the measure was John Howard Louche, Esq. His labours and liberality in the matter demand our grateful consideration.

Sabbath, Jan. 15, 1865.—A quarter of a century today since I first addressed an assembly of the sons and daughters of Ethiopia. How swiftly time flies! It seems but a few days since I began my missionary work in Jamaica.

Tuesday, Feb. 28.—Mr. [Rev. Z.] Baillie gave the closing lecture of the session. His theme, which he handled in a manner at once amusing and instructive, was "Electricity."

During the session the lectures have been given by various gentlemen. Subjects: "Valuable Remedies for various Disorders," "History of English Literature," "Biography of John Locke the Philosopher," "Social Responsibility," "Manliness."

Wednesday, April 26.—At Creek Town to-day bidding friends there good-bye for a season. Accompanied by Mr. Goldie, called on the principal native gentlemen and had a few parting words with them. Spent an hour or two at Old Town on return.

Thursday, 27.—Round Henshaw Town, engaged as yesterday.

Friday, 28.—Round Cobham Town, engaged as yesterday.

Saturday, 29.— Round Duke Town, engaged as above.

Sabbath, 30. Usual services. In usual course next Sabbath should be Communion Sabbath here, but Mr. Edgcrley kindly appointed the celebration for to-day, that Mrs. A., his sister, and myself might have the pleasure of uniting again, ere we leave, with our dear friends here in commemorating the death of our Blessed Redeemer. Mr. Baillie preached, I dispensed, Mr. Edgerley concluded.

May 1.—Making preparations for our voyage, which will be commenced to-morrow.

In a letter regarding Henny Cobham, the chief of Cobham Town, who died on Nov. 9, 1865, Mr. Anderson wrote:—

Mrs. Anderson appeared to have more influence over him than almost anyone else. He used to admit that "Mammy Anderson good past twenty Calabar women," and that "she be best man for Mission," etc.; but even she sometimes failed to prevail on him to let some poor victim be unchained and forgiven.

He was very much affected on parting with Mrs. Anderson and myself. He declared that he would never see us again. He speechified to Mrs. Anderson to this effect: "What for you go leave me? Calabar man do plenty thing missionary want him to do. We stop kill man, we keep God's day, we do what you tell us to do, and now you leave we. I tell you true, mammy, I go die now." We told him that we expected to come back in twelve moons, and that then we would see him again ; but he refused to be comforted, and with the tear in his eye he shook his head again, and said, "I never look you again." ... In him we have lost one of the warmest-hearted of our native friends.

In a letter, Mr. D. E. Lewis, who had gone out as a teacher and printer, and had arrived in Calabar along with the Rev. Win, C. and Mrs. Thomson in the end of Jan., wrote as follows :—

I am stopping in Duke Town with Mr. Anderson, who has taken a great interest in my welfare. . . . The natives in Duke Town appear to have a great respect for Mr. Anderson, and they do not at all relish the idea of his going away, especially as the rumour has got afloat that he might not return to the country.

Mr. and Mrs. Anderson and Miss Edgerley arrived in Liverpool in June. The Rev. Zerub Baillie soon followed. He arrived in Liverpool on July 15, and had to be carried ashore, being very weak and seriously ill. Mrs. Anderson, who was accustomed to nurse Calabar patients, Mrs. Cowan of Carron Hall (his mother-in-law), and others, [It happened that Dr. E. Adam, who had been in Calabar, in whose medical skill Mr. Baillie had entire confidence, was living in the same house, and he at once took him under his care ; and as soon as Dr. Hewan, who was in Paris, heard of his illness, he hurried to his bedside; and these two gentlemen, aided by the advice of Dr. Bruce, "an eminent and kindly physician of long standing in Liverpool," showed him ceaseless attention.] hastened to wait upon him. But he died on Aug. 4. The body was brought to Edinburgh, and on Aug. 8 was interred in the Grange Cemetery beside that of his brother John, who died on May 7, 1S64. On the afternoon of the Sunday following, Mr. Anderson preached in Broughton Place Church, which was densely crowded, a most appropriate and beautiful sermon1 on the words, "Our friend Lazarus sleepeth," and gave a brief but touching account of Mr. Baillie's labours, death, and character.

At the Annual Missionary Meeting of the Synod in May 1866, Mr. Anderson delivered a stirring address.

In a letter from Edinburgh to her husband's niece, Miss Agnes Clohan, Wheeling, U.S.A., Mrs. Anderson wrote on April 3, 1866, an interesting description of her home in Calabar:—

I am so glad the time is drawing near for our return. I feel like a caged bird in this country. I never liked a town life at any rate, and the artificial life of this country does not suit my taste. I long to be in my happy African home again.

You will think I am a discontented, grumbling body; well, I will tell you that I have been grumbling very much last week about your uncle. He can get no rest. Preaching sometimes—generally three times on the Sabbaths, then three meetings during the week. Last week I thought he would be laid up altogether, for he had a cold, and with so much speaking he was so rough that I thought he would lose his voice, and yet, on he would go, here and there, preachings and meetings. So I was like to be rebellious. I wish for his own sake he would leave in May, but those who want him to supply this and that pulpit wish him to stay on till June; and a letter this morning came asking him for a Sabbath in July, but he will not stay till July. If he does, like Mr. Waddell, he will get his health shattered, I fear, ere he gets away.

Did I ever give you a description of our home in Calabar? I do not think I have, so I will try now, and that will help you to imagine how we get on.

In 1855 our house was burnt. It took fire accidentally from some bush burning. So they sent out from this country another wooden house of three rooms, but much too small. So we kept up a mud-walled cottage that we had built ere the new house arrived. Consequently, we had two small houses ; the rooms of the wooden house being so small, served only as bedrooms and a study. We lived chiefly in the mud-walled house, as the rooms were larger and more airy-—a comfortable house it has been, not very high, the flooring raised only 4 feet, but we had the walls nicely papered. We are now getting an addition to the other, which will make it larger and more comfortable. It is less labour to have the house all in one; and when you come to see us, or better, to live with us, we will have plenty of accommodation for you. Then, we have about an acre of ground around the house, enclosed by a thick hedge of limes, which is always fresh and green. Wc have within this enclosure a flower garden in front, and a number of fruit trees planted in rows by your uncle, who generally takes his spade every morning from 6 till 7, which is the hour for worship. Under these trees, which are all large now, is a beautiful walk, always cool and shaded by the trees. The fruit trees are oranges and mangoes, breadfruit, soursop, custard apple, cocoanuts, cashu, palms of different kinds—date palm, oil palm, etc.—and a fine bamboo in the corner. Also pineapples in abundance beside the hedge growing, but not yet in fruit.

I forgot to tell you that our house is built on a hill, about 200 feet high, rising as it were right out of the river, so that we look down on the hulks and ships ; and on the top it is tableland extending far away.

The road from Duke Town to Henshaw Town and other villages passes just outside our fence. Then on the other side of the road opposite our gate are the church and schoolhouse (a church on Sabbath, a schoolhouse during the week), the printing office, Mrs. Sutherland's house, and Miss Edgerley's. Then houses of some of the native Christians beyond them. So, you see, we are not solitary. At the back of the mud-walled house we have outrooms for the house-children, not near enough to be disturbed with their talk, but near enough that I can see what is going on. We have generally a large household— some orphans that were brought to us when a few months old, too young to be reared by native women. Such the)' used to bury with their dead mothers till we took them. We do not find time to weary with so many to look after. When we left Calabar we had 16 children under our care ; 10 entirely dependent on us—the youngest 4 years old.

We rise at 5 or 6 o'clock in the morning, according to the light we have, for we make the most of the mornings, and there is only one hour of difference between the longest and shortest day. All except the infants are employed till 7, when the bell rings for worship; breakfast sharp at 8; children off to school at 8.30. I give out coppers for the marketing, for we cannot get any quantity to buy at one time, and there is a daily marketing. We attend to other household duties till I, when we dine, and all who are able for work are employed sewing chiefly, or knitting and crochet work. At 3 o'clock to school till 5. If no sick people in the house, I go to the town to the gentlemen's yards and teach then-wives and daughters to read, and also religious instruction, for they are not allowed to attend public meetings. Indeed they seldom go out, and, if allowed to go out, they are attended by a host of servants; and it is accounted a disgrace for the wives and daughters of gentlemen to be seen much abroad.


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