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William and Louisa Anderson
Part III - Old Calabar Period, 1849-1889, & Closing Years, 1889-1895
Chapter 11

Bombardment and Destruction of Old Town—Destruction by Fire of Duke Town Mission-House

In the beginning of 1855 two events happened, both of a disastrous nature, which affected the fortunes of Mr. and Mrs. Edgerley at Old Town, and Mr. and Mrs. Anderson at Duke Town. The first was the bombardment and destruction of Old Town by the British war steamer, on the 19th of January, and the second the accidental destruction by fire of the mission-house at Duke Town on the 9th of February.

To understand what led up to the destruction of Old Town, we have to go back a year. "The gross violation of the law against human sacrifices committed at Old Town, at the death of the chief Willie Tom Robins, in Feb. 1854, required," says Mr. Waddell, [Twenty-Nine Years, p. 551. 303] "to be promptly and severely dealt with. When, therefore, it was formally made known by the missionaries to the native authorities, an Egbo interdict was laid on the guilty place, forbidding the funeral rites for the deceased till the breach of law was atoned for. In the native estimation that was decisive. The obsequies could not be indefinitely postponed, as a successor required to be chosen after they were concluded, and other important matters, both of business and of pleasure, depended on their regular performance. Sooner or later, therefore, the heads of the town would be obliged to succumb and pay the penalty. . . . King Eyo said that everything was in a fair train for finding and punishing the guilty." Had the native law and procedure—slow, but in this case sure—been allowed to take its course, all would have been well.

But the white traders, who were simply temporal-residents, and imperfectly acquainted with native customs, and unwilling to wait the execution of Egbo law, "desired a more vigorous mode of procedure. In Jan. 1855, 'the gentlemen of the shipping,'" continues Mr. Waddell, "called a meeting to determine the fate of Old Town. From that meeting the missionaries were excluded; and, in their absence and contrary to the wishes of the rulers of Duke Town and Creek Town, it was resolved that the town should be destroyed and some of its chief men banished. A boat was then despatched to Fernando Po for the Consul and the man-of-war ; and in a week more, H.M. ss. Antelope, Commander Young, arrived with the Acting Consul, Mr. Lynslager, on board. This gentleman, a mereJiant of Clarence, who had been temporarily appointed by the late Consul Beecroft, . . . immediately on his arrival summoned a general meeting on board the Queen's ship, and desired all complaints to be brought before him." In spite of the protests of Mr. Edgerley, the missionary at Old Town, and contrary to the wishes of the other missionaries, he ordered the destruction of the town.

Mr. Edgerley was subsequently blamed in Parliament and in the press [As an example of the distortion of facts in the press, the following sentence from a book on European Settlements on the West Coast of Africa, published in 1862, by a Captain and F.R.G.S., whose ignorance of the real nature of missionary work is only equalled by his bias against missions, will suffice. After speaking of the "schismatic emissaries" of "rival sects of dissenters," "professed harbingers of Christianity and peace," as being "pestilent fomenters of strife between tribes"(!), the writer goes on to say, "The missionaries are in fact the most warlike men on the coast," and illustrates it by various cases, concluding with the following reference to the bombardment of Old Town, which he erroneously supposes to be the chief town of Old Calabar: "As said Sir C. Wood [in Parliament], it was at the request (!) of the missionaries the town of Old Calabar [sic) was destroyed by the fleet (sic), though what wrong the natives had committed has not to this day transpired." Had the writer read the Blue-Book on the subject, he could not have penned that sentence.] for its destruction.

The bombardment and destruction of Old Town formed the subject of a Memorial to Government from the Foreign Mission Board, dated Oct. 2nd, 1855, and also of a Deputation, consisting of Messrs. John Henderson of Park, and David Anderson, Glasgow, accompanied by the Hon. A. F. Kinnaird, M.P., which had an interview with Lord Clarendon at the Foreign Office on the 2nd of November, and presented the Memorial. The Memorial is given in full in the Record for Dec. 1855. It will be sufficient to summarise the views of the Board:—

They complained of the Consul's proceeding— (1) Because it was illegal.—There was no treaty existing between Old Town and the British Government which gave the Consul authority or right to interfere in the matter. This is the testimony of all the missionaries who have for eight years been resident there, and are thoroughly acquainted with all the transactions which have taken place. The treaty of 15th February 1851, which, it was alleged, had been violated, had no reference whatever to Old Town. None of the chiefs or representatives of Old Town was present at the making of that treaty, and could not therefore be bound by it. It was a treaty framed between the chiefs of Duke Town and the slaves of the Qua plantation. The error of the Consul and others lies in supposing that a treaty made with one town in Calabar binds all the others, whereas the fact is that each town has its own separate civil rulers.

(2) Because it was done in opposition to the wishes and protests of the missionary agents, who are British subjects, resident in the locality.—The language of the Consul's letter of 19th January (as given in Blue-Book, Class A, p. 162) conveyed the idea that the missionaries united with the supercargoes in calling upon the Consul to grant " redress " for the murders at Old Town. This was not the case. A letter of the Rev. W. Anderson, dated 15th January, is given in the Blue-Book, p. 163, and it makes no allusion to Old Town. A letter of the Rev. S. Edgerley is also given, p. 164. It pointed out certain dangers to which he was exposed, and claimed in regard to these, not "redress," but "protection." The Memorial proceeds:—The missionaries deeply lamented the murders at Old Town, strongly desired that the native Egbo law, passed in 1850, should be vindicated, and were very anxious that the Consul should use his moral influence, as his predecessor, Mr. Beecroft, had often done, in persuading the natives to carry into effect their own law; but they unanimously disapproved of, and, as has been already stated, protested against the proposal to destroy Old Town. The Consul, however, disregarded their protests— the protests of the only British subjects resident in the town of Old Calabar, and deeply interested in the welfare of the people, and, in compliance with the suggestion and request of the majority of the masters and supercargoes, who are only temporary visitors, extinguished a native town and destroyed a mission station. This is a proceeding which imperils our other mission stations, and all the other missions along the Coast; for if a Consul, in defiance of the protest of the British residents, and at the suggestion of mere strangers, shall destroy a town and blot out a mission, it is obvious that it needs but the combination of men who may not like the existence of missionaries in a given locality, to secure their expulsion, the ruin of their work, and the perpetuation of the reign of darkness, cruelty, and death.

(3) Because it is fitted to have an injurious effect on our Jlissiou.—In the joint narrative of the missionaries (drawn up by Mr. Waddell), it is said:—

"Injurious suspicions are spread abroad against us, as, at the bottom, the cause of this outrage, because we have rebuked and exposed the practices which have apparently brought it about. Now, nothing could be more injurious to our efforts among the people than the idea that we were backed by a man-of-war. We come as men of peace. . . . If they imagine that our entreaties are a cunning device to ensnare them into promises which shall be enforced by the thunder of war-guns, it is easy to see how vain will be our best endeavours for their instruction and conversion."

(4) Because it tends to weaken the beneficial influence of the white man upon the native mind.—The missionaries say: "Native instrumentality and co-operation are indispensable to native reformation, and certainly much better than external compulsion."

[Would that in all dealings with native races that principle were acted on ! External force is no remedy ; nor will "the fear of the Consul," or of the coercive powers of civilisation represented by him, avail to work permanent reforms in any native State. Native instrumentality— Egbo law, for example, and the willing co-operation of even an enlightened minority only of chiefs and people— will do more for native reformation than civilised compulsion in any shape or form. It may be a slower, but it is a far surer process. Moral and spiritual influence, not force nor even law, is the true reformer and civiliser of heathen and barbarous tribes.—W. M.]

(5) Because the Consul has prohibited the town from being rebuilt.—It is the oldest town in the district, and its annihilation is calculated to produce, among a people who cling to tradition, very hostile feelings towards Europeans. . . . The destruction of the town is illegal, but to forbid its ever being rebuilt is the highest injustice. And what aggravates this arbitrary act of power is the conduct of the Consul in taking the people of Duke Town bound, under the penalty of the displeasure of H.M.'s Government, to keep Old Town a ruin. It is a subversion of all the ideas of the people of Calabar, as well as of natural rights, to hold the people of one town, with a distinct civil government, responsible for the doings of the people of another town, with a separate civil authority.

In a letter of 30th Jan. 1S56, which it may be best to give here, Mr. Anderson communicates the intelligence that T. J. Hutchinson, Esq. (author of an interesting Narrative of the Niger, Tshadda, and Binuc Exploration, etc., 1885, formerly a medical man, the then newly-appointed Consul for the Bight of Biafra, had visited Calabar, and convened a meeting at Old Town, where, in accordance with instructions from Lord Clarendon, he made a treaty with the people of Old Town, giving them liberty, on certain conditions, to rebuild their town. The Government thus lost no time in carrying into effect the promise which, on the 2nd of November, Lord Clarendon made to the Deputation from the Mission Board. The friendly relations between the Consul and the missionaries, that enabled them to work cordially together in their distinctive spheres for the best interests of the natives, afford an example worthy of imitation in every British sphere where consular jurisdiction and missionary influence coexist:—

Consul Hutchinson arrived on his first official visit to this river in H.M.S. Bloodhound on the 16th curt., and left us on the 22nd. The natives were delighted to meet an old friend in a new capacity. On the Friday or Saturday they presented a very kind address to Consul H., congratulating him on his appointment, expressing their conviction that he will do what is just and right between white men and black, etc. He wrote a very suitable address in reply, which he entrusted to me to deliver and interpret. The reply furnished me with good themes for some of my meetings. I found the following statement, in particular, to be a capital text, seeing that the Efik country is nourished by the Queen's country: "Queen Victoria and her gentlemen wish commerce and Christianity to flourish wherever the English flag waves."

Sabbath, Jan. 20th, was Grand Egbo day, so that we had hardly any meetings in town. About 11 A.M., as all on board the Bloodhound were met for and engaged in divine service, a noisy Egbo canoe procession was coming up the river, bringing Egbo from the bush. Perhaps there was a little more showing- off than usual, from the idea that the white strangers on the man-of-war vessel would be deeply interested in the affair.

From its being generally known that the Consul would be at church at the afternoon English service, a good many of the native gentlemen forsook, pro tem. their Egbo affairs, and came to worship with us. It was pleasant to see our Consul, Commander Williams, and several of the Bloodhound's officers setting a good example to the natives of Old Calabar in regard to church-going. Would that all our countrymen who come here would "go and do likewise"!

On Monday, Jan. 21st, an important meeting was held at Old Town. Of Europeans, there were present Consul H., Commander Williams, the Consul's secretary, the four ordained missionaries, Messrs. Sutherland and Wylie, and Dr. Hewan. Of the natives there were present, besides the chiefs of Old Town, King Eyo and a band of Creek Town gentlemen, and Duke Ephraim with a band of Duke Town gentlemen. Old Town gentlemen received permission to rebuild Old Town, on their signing a treaty, of which the following are the provisions, which bear most on our Mission work:—

1. The abolition of human sacrifices for the dead.—The gentlemen were quite willing to accede to this demand.

2. Saving the lives of twin children.—There was some demur here, but at length it was agreed that their lives should be saved, but that they are on no account to come or be brought into town.

3. Infants whose mothers die are not to be buried alive, but committed to the care of the United Presbyterian missionaries.—This also was at once agreed to.

4. In regard to the ordeal of the esére (poison bean), the Consul and missionaries strove to get it abolished, but could not prevail. Its mode of administration was, however, so regulated and modified that the system is deprived of most of its power of doing mischief. No one is to be compelled to take the ordeal at Old Town without the consent of King Eyo and Duke Ephraim.

5. The protection of missionaries.—-This also was at once agreed to. While on this point, I was much gratified on hearing the Consul give a good word of counsel and reproof to my Duke Town friends. He told them plainly that he had no power to make laws for them on such subjects, but that as a friend he would advise them to abolish Egbo processions, devil-makings, and markets on the Sabbath day, seeing that on account of such things as he himself had witnessed on the previous day, many who would like to attend school and meetings for instruction were prevented. He expressed his gratification at having seen so many Duke Town gentlemen at church on the Sabbath afternoon, and his sorrow on account of the Egbo procession on the Sabbath morning.

Such good advice from such a quarter, and given in such a kindly manner, will, I trust, be followed with beneficial results; though I must needs confess that I see little prospect of reformation among the adult population of Duke Town. To many of them, I fear, may be addressed the awful words of Acts xxviii. 26-27.

With reference to the destruction by fire, on 9th February, of Duke Town mission-house, Mr. Edgerley wrote in his Journal and in a letter:—

Between twelve and one o'clock noon a fire broke out in the Duke Town mission-house, the first mission-house erected in Calabar. It originated by a spark being carried by a strong breeze from an adjacent spot where the bush was being burnt off, and lighting upon the roof, covered with matting and asphalte felt, which were of a friable and combustible nature, owing to the extreme drought prevailing. Hundreds of persons were on the spot immediately—white people from the ships, Kruboys and natives; but though many mounted the roof, and the most strenuous efforts were made to extinguish the flames, in one hour the house was reduced to a heap of ruins, and we are left to wonder at the inscrutable ways of Providence, that within the space of twenty short days two of our Mission stations should be rendered useless.

Mr. Anderson himself wrote to Mr. Somerville on February 13 :—

You will regret to learn that the roof of Duke Town mission-house accidentally caught fire on Friday last, the 9th inst, and in little more than an hour the whole was burnt down to the ground, with the exception of a few of the mangrove posts on which the house was supported. Most of the ship-captains and surgeons, with a large number of native gentlemen, with drawn swords in hand, came to our aid as soon as possible, and, under their direction, a portion of the household furniture and about the half of my books were saved from the flames. We are occupying two small apartments which escaped destruction.

Mr. Anderson wrote more fully on 28th March :—

We are quite busy at present preparing a temporary residence, in expectation that another mission-house will be forthcoming in due time. [In the Record for May 1855, after referring to the fact that Mr. and Mrs. Anderson had had to take up their abode in two small out-houses, and that Mr. and Mrs. Edgerley were residing in a small house erected by one of the ship-captains, which the Board had purchased, it is stated that "the Committee on Foreign Missions are accordingly taking steps to have houses made and sent out by the May steamer, in order that our esteemed agents may, as speedily as it is practicable for us, be furnished with the means of healthful accommodation." Would that the same policy had prevailed in recent years in replacing the temporary houses, which have had so much to do with the ill-health, the invaliding, and the permanent withdrawal from Calabar of several of the agents at the new up-river stations of Ungwana and Emuremura, by suitable permanent houses. The delay in providing them has been most injurious to the work at these stations, and has again and again broken the continuity of the work, which is so essential to success. Now that a new house has been provided for Emuremura, there is no ordained missionary to occupy it!] Our present premises would not, we fear, afford us sufficient protection from wind and wet during the approaching rainy season. You will be glad to learn that a number of our river friends have contributed liberally to the purchase of another house for us. [Captain Baak contributed £30, and friends in the ship Lady Head over £100, in token of sympathy for the calamity, "which many of us the more deeply deplore, in consideration of the kind attention and hospitality received [in the mission-house] during sickness.''] We are indebted to several of the gentlemen in the river for more than their pecuniary contributions; in particular to Captain Baak, for several articles of provision and important repairs to our boat.

I send you a list of the more important and useful of my books which were destroyed by the fire of the 9th ult. Perhaps some friends may have some of the volumes to spare. Mrs. A. made strong efforts to save them all, but it was impossible. She continued throwing them down from the shelves when no one could go near her to receive them, owing to the smoke which filled the room, and the burning timbers which were falling around her and on her. So intent was she on her purpose of saving, that she perceived not her danger. A river friend, however, providentially saw her when she was on the point of falling down suffocated, and on the instant he snatched her up in his arms and placed her in safety in the open air.

On the day of the fire, and when the house was almost consumed, I happened to be going into the yard with Cobbin's Condensed Commentary under my arm. "A great woman"—one of the native ladies—was standing at the gate. On my approach, she thus addressed me, with much appearance of feeling, "Mbom! mbom!''—"Pity! pity!" equal to "I console with you on your loss." I told her that it was true that I felt sorry about the house and other things which had been burned; but, pointing to my Bible, I said to her (translating the Efik literally), "Something live here make my heart very strong in time of this big trouble." On hearing this, the good woman shrank back, and looked with a good deal of alarm at my book. She doubtless thought that it must be my big juju> and that, though it might protect me, it might injure her. This led me to explain to her briefly what the Bible is, and what it does. She listened with much interest, and afterwards went on her way. This, thought I, may be one design of this painful dispensation, that we may have an opportunity of glorifying God in the fires, by showing to the poor benighted ones around us that our religion affords—what theirs does not—something to support and cheer in the hour of severe trial.

Death has been busy among the chiefs of this town since the year began. In January, Egbo Jack, an old man of considerable influence, was called away. He had frequently spurned the word of God and mocked the message of the Most High.. He mocks no more!

In February, Mr. Young, whose name has figured largely, if not very brightly, in Efik history for many years, was called on to stand before the Judge of all. He died on Sabbath the nth. On the previous Sabbath I addressed him on the great subject, founding my remarks on the story of Naaman the Syrian. He listened with deep attention. I saw him but once after that. He was very ill. I prayed with him, and pointed him to the Saviour. After this, he sent for Mr. Haddison to read to him from the word of God and to pray with him. I am not altogether destitute of confidence that he prayed for himself—that he looked to the Saviour of sinners for mercy. And "who can tell?" But I proceed no further. "The day will declare it."

On Friday the 9th inst., Antika Cobham entered the eternal world. For years the word of God was spoken Sabbath after Sabbath in his yard. He never did pay much attention to it, however, and for some Sabbaths before his death he would not listen to it at all.

These repeated inroads of the King of Terrors call loudly on those who are entrusted with the message of mercy to be diligent in their endeavours to save souls from death. They call loudly on all to prepare for another world, In a letter dated 24th May, Mr. Anderson intimated that he had succeeded in erecting a temporary house:—

A little experience of the accommodation afforded by the schoolroom and a small out-house, after the con flagration of the mission-house, convinced us that without some better lodging we could not expect either comfort or health during the rainy" season, which usually begins in May. We set about the erection of a temporary abode, to be made partly in European and partly in native style. This edifice, 36 by 15 inside the walls, was so far finished that we were able to enter it as occupants on Friday last, the 18th inst., which day, we well remembered, was the seventh anniversary of our departure from Rose Hill. The walls are made of native material, wattle plastered with mud; the floor is four feet from the ground, and is made of boards which Dr. Ferguson sent us most opportune!}' from Liverpool; the doors are made of the same timber, and the windows were saved from the late mission-house. We find a vast addition to our comfort in our new abode, as compared with our circumstances during the last three months. I may mention that during that period we have had showers and tornadoes, which have put us frequently to no small inconvenience and discomfort; but, with feelings of gratitude to Him who rules the elements, I record it, the first heavy and continuous rain of the season did not descend till the afternoon of Friday last, immediately after we were, in a manner, settled down in our new residence. Then the heavens became quite black, and heavy rain poured down without intermission from three till twelve P.M.

I had rather a severe attack of fever last month. I was seized on the evening of Saturday the 7th, and the fever continued till midnight of the 13th. It left me very low. At one time, I understand, my recovery was despaired of.

On Friday the 20th, went as on a former occasion) to Creek Town for a change of air. Spent about a week very pleasantly with Mr. and Mrs. Waddell, whose kindness and hospitality demand my grateful remembrance. On the Sabbath I was able to say a few words in King Eyo's yard, and also to preach a short sermon in the schoolroom in the evening. The contrast between a Creek Town Sabbath and a Duke Town Sabbath is very great. There, "a Sabbath stillness reigns around"; here, except in one portion of the town, and among those connected with the Church, there is very little difference between Sabbath day and week clay. Was glad to see King Eyo as much interested as ever in the statements of Divine truth which he hears from time to time. King Duke has not attended a religious meeting for above a year, and gives no countenance to either Sabbath meeting or week-day school, yet declares that he " keeps Sunday very proper."

On Tuesday, April 24th, I accompanied Mr. Waddell to Ekrikok [Ikoneto]. We were very kindly received by the people, and we spoke to them the word of the Lord. I quite enjoyed the trip, though it was rather fatiguing for an invalid. . . .

On Monday, April 30th, I was able to resume the teaching of the school, which work has again devolved on me since Mr. Sutherland went to Old Town in the end of February.

You will be glad to learn that another of our young men has been added to the fellowship of the Church. His name is Ephraim John Duke. He is one of those whose marriage to one wife I intimated to you last year. He was baptized in the afternoon of Sabbath the 6th inst. I would commend him, and all who, like him, "have named the name of Christ" in this land, to your prayers, to the prayers of the Church.

Monday, June 4.— Other three of the Sierra Leone immigrants have been added to the Church here, and sat with us yesterday at the table of the Lord. . . .

Mr. Anderson wrote on Aug. 29th :—

I had but little time to write you on the arrival of the Candace, with a new house for us on board, on July 14th. We felt, and feel, grateful to the Mission Board for their kind consideration in sending us a new house, even before they received any request on the subject from us. The rains having been much more continuous this year than usual, we have not yet got much done in the way of preparation for erecting the new house. By the kindness of one of the supercargoes, wc have had a number of Krumen cutting and carrying posts for the edifice. The rains, however, have interfered a good deal with their operations. Having been kept a good deal in the house for some time past by the rains, I have applied myself a good deal to the translating into Efik of the books of Psalms and Proverbs. I am now at the 85th Psalm and the 19th chapter of Proverbs. In so far as I have gone, I have found the exercise to be both pleasant and profitable.

One of my former assistants in the work of translation, James Carpenter by name, died on the 31st ult. He was one of the most intelligent young men belonging to Old Calabar. He possessed fine talents, and I often fondly hoped that the}' would be turned to good account in advancing the cause of Christianity among his countrymen. My hopes have not been realised. James embarked in trade, and, to all appearance, other influences " choked the word." Well knew he his duties in regard to religious matters, but—he procrastinated. Had he enjoyed only one week more of health, the last of the obstacles which interposed between him and Church fellowship would have been removed, and it was—so I am informed by his most intimate companion—his full resolution to be married, and to apply for baptism the week after that. But the opportunity of publicly avowing himself to be "on the Lord's side," by union with the Church below, had already passed away for ever. He read with me the whole of John's Gospel, and also various other portions of Scripture, while I was employed in translating them into Efik. Frequently, at the close of our lessons, I have said to him, "Now, James, remember Noah's carpenters" in allusion to a religious handbill so headed, which interested him much, and in which those who aid in religious matters, without being themselves religious, are compared to Noah's carpenters, who indeed helped to build the ark for the salvation of others, and yet perished themselves. He well understood the hint, and frequently expressed his purpose not to imitate them.

I saw him several times at the commencement of his illness, while he was yet in Duke Town. He was rather taciturn, but declared that he was looking to Christ for the pardon of all his sins, and acceptance with God. By and by his father had him taken away to a celebrated (I rather suppose, juju) doctor at Ekri Mimbo, where he lingered some weeks, and then died. While at this last-named place no human friend was near him who could point him to the Lamb of God, but he had enlarged knowledge of gospel truth, and perhaps He manifested Himself to the parting spirit amid that mass of gloomy superstition by which the sufferer was surrounded.

The death of another of Mr. Anderson's former assistants, Mr. Alexander Sutherland of Old Town, may be recorded here. On June 4, 1855, Mr. Anderson wrote: "Sorry to have to intimate that Mr. Sutherland's health has not been in a satisfactory state for some time." In the beginning of the year Mr. Sutherland took temporary charge at Old Town after the bombardment, and in September he was appointed to the superintendence of the station. He began to have repeated attacks of illness. Dr. Hewan and the rest of the brethren strongly advised him, with the view of recruiting his strength, either to go home for a time or to remove to a milder region. But he persisted in remaining. His chief reason for this was the prospect of his being married to Miss Miller, and of taking charge of Old Town as his own station; and as the brethren hoped that these changes might operate for his benefit, they did not urge his departure. He removed to Old Town on Nov. 8, and was married at Creek Town on Nov. 29. With reference to Mrs. Sutherland, Mr. Waddell wrote: "For myself, it is a matter of the highest satisfaction that, having brought Miss Miller to this country six years ago, then an experiment, I am now able to hand her over, a well-qualified missionary wife, to her own husband. Henceforth let no one magnify the dancers of the Calabar climate as a bar to their serving God in the gospel of His dear Son in this part of the mission field. What a young woman has done, young men should not be afraid to undertake." For a time Mr. Sutherland greatly improved in health and spirits. Dr. Hewan wrote: "I had much pleasure in living in the house with the happy couple, both of whom seemed strenuously exerting themselves to promote the grand object before them—the saving health of the surrounding tribes." Mr. Sutherland was seized with diarrhoea in the beginning of April 1856, and died on the 20th. "On the 16th," wrote Mr. Anderson, who frequently visited him, "he gave me special charges to look after his widow— 'my lassie,' as he called her—when he should be gone." On the 21st, "at the earnest request of Mrs. Sutherland, he was interred at Creek Town," by the side of Mr. Jameson. Mr. Anderson wrote regarding the death :—

Whilst this event fills the heart with sadness—whilst we mourn that Mr. Sutherland was removed in comparative youth, being only twenty-seven years of age, and when favourable prospects of usefulness were opening before him, still there is nothing about it that should discourage us, or that should make us regard the foreign mission field as peculiarly dangerous. . . . Let us bear in mind that there have been only two deaths in Calabar in ten years. Those who are in the mission field occupy a conspicuous position ; the eyes of many, happily, are on them; and when they fall, the event is noticed, and people are apt to say that foreign service is connected with special perils. But let these persons, before they draw such a conclusion, look at home. During the three years, in which we have had no deaths among our numerous missionaries abroad, no fewer than twenty-eight ministers of the home Church were removed by death, eleven of whom were either young men or persons in the prime of life; and yet no one made the remark that the home ministry is perilous to human life. ..."Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord;" and pre-eminently blessed are those that fall in the high places of the Foreign Mission field ; for they honoured the Lord, and He will specially honour them.

Mr. Anderson's commonsense method of looking the facts in the face, and comparing the comparative mortality in the home and the foreign field, may be commended to those who look only at the mortality in the foreign field.


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