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History of Inverness County, Nova Scotia
Chapter XXXVIII - The Marshes, West Bay District

Four miles from West Bay, on the way to Marble Mountain, is the place known as "The Marshes." The first settler who came there was Alexander Ross, who came in 1817 from the eastern side of Scotland near the town of "Tain." He saw two inducements to settle here; there was a brook for water power, and "a marsh" yielding quite a quantity of hay. This "marsh" has since been worn out of existence by the waters of the Bay, now replacing it. Trout and eels are now fished where hay was once mowed and made.

Alexander Ross was married in 1820 to Isabel McLeod daughter of John MacLeod, who with his wife came from Eriboll, Parish of Durness, Sutherlandshire, Scotland, and settled opposite the marshes on the other side of the Bay. His family consisted of three sons and one daughter. The daughter got married and lived on the South side of River Dennis Basin. One of the sons named John was killed in a grist mill in 1851. The oldest boy Angus settled on a farm on the opposite side of the Bay. The place is now called St. George's Channel. The youngest son, George, settled on the homestead and erected a new Grist mill in 1861.

The next settler towards Lime Hill was John MacLeod from the Isle of Lewis, Scotland. He was married to a MacLean woman from Cape Dauphin, Victoria County, and had three sons and four daughters. This family was neat and industrious and made a comfortable living. They bought a farm for the oldest son, the youngest son, Norman, remaining on the homestead. The other son died in early life.

In 1827 several families came from Harris, Scotland, and settled in this vicinity. There were MacCuspies, Campbells and a Shaw family.

Rory MacCuspic was married to a MacPhail woman from Sporting Mountain, and had one son and six daughters. The daughters were all married in the neighborhood except one who went to the United States and is the only one of the six now living. The son was married without issue, both himself and wife are dead, and the place is now vacant.

Archibald Campbell was married to Margaret MacLean with issue: five boys and five girls, all of whom moved to the United States, except two sons on the old homestead here.

John MacCuspic came from Scotland in 1827, took up a farm and was married to Effie McCuish of Grand River, with issue: four boys and one girl. The girl was married, had a family, and died three years ago. Her husband and family predeceased her. The youngest boy, whose name was Malcolm, is still living on the old homestead. He was married to Christy MacIntyre with issue: four sons and five daughters. One of these sons remained with his parents on the homestead, two are dead, and the rest of Malcolm's family are in the United States.

Donald MacCuspic lived on the Rear of the Marshes, was married twice and had three sons and three daughters by the first marriage which took place in Scotland. By his second marriage which took place here, he had one son and three daughters. The son in this family is still living in Pictou County.

Another early settler on the Rearlands here was Donald Campbell from Coll. After clearing quite a piece of ground where he located he sold his claim to John MacLeod of River Inhabitants for eight Pounds, and moved to South side of River Dennis Basin.

Malcolm MacCuspic (Ronald) was married coming from Scotland and had two sons and three daughters. The boys died in young manhood. One of them, Finlay, was a wit and very popular. Two of the daughters of Malcolm were married, one of them to Alexander MacAskill whose family live between here and Big Brook. The old farm of Malcolm MacCuspic is now vacant.

John McInnis and wife came from the Isle of Skye, and had three sons and two daughters. They were all thrifty and industrious and never in want. Two of the sons moved to P.E.I, where they took up farms and got along well. One of these sons took his unmarried sister with him to P.E.I, after the death of the old couple. Another sister is in the United States. The youngest son of John MacInnis went to Western Canada, and was lost in the North West Rebellion.

John Shaw was married in Scotland to Christina MacCuspic, daughter of Donald, and had four sons and four daughters. His oldest son John Jr. was married to Flora MacLeod of Marble Mountain, and, after farming for a time at Malagawatch, went to Boston where he died. Three of the daughters and the youngest son are married in the United States. One of the sons was lost in the explosion of the Drummond Colliery. The son, Kenneth, is on the old homestead married to one of the MacAskill woman.
John Campbell from the Isle of Lewis was married to a sister of Donald and Rory MacCuspic, and had three sons and two daughters. The oldest son, Murdoch, left home in the early Fifties and never was heard from afterwards. The next son, Donald, was married to a Macintosh woman from Macintosh's Mountain where he was killed in a row on Christmas Eve 1873. The son, Angus, lived on the old stand until his death a few years ago. One of the daughters was married and died at Malagawatch, the other died unmarried at Marble Mountain. Early in the thirties Wm. MacPherson, who was born in Pictou, settled on these shores, but afterwards moved back to the Rear of the District. He had a family of five sons and one daughter. They were a careful family, and hard workers. The son John took another farm for himself in the neighborhood, was married to a Calder woman from Malagawatch, with issue; six daughters and one son.

Sometime in the middle Forties Robert Calder from South Mun-tain bought the old MacPherson farm, and came to reside on it. His first wife was Mary MacLeod by whom he had one son, John, who turned out to be a man of uncommon mental gifts. Early in his school days this John displayed a high order of talent and industry. Nothing seemed too hard for him to learn, and what he did learn, he learned once for all. His memory was unerring and unfailing. No ordinary institution of learning could stand him long. He studied law at Mc-Gills' University in Montreal, married a clever French Canadian lady was admitted to the Bar of Quebec, and began the practice of his profession in that vast centre of commerce and culture — the historic city of Mount Royal. He was a devouring student. It is said that he could speak with ease in thirteen languages. But, alas, death cut short a career that was likely to be famous. We were but a mere kid when we read with emotion, in a Montreal newspaper of character these remarkable words: "The Bar of Quebec has lost one of its most learned members in the death of Mr. Calder."

Robert Calder was married a second time to a daughter of John MacRae, Tailor, who lived on an Island in the Bay about a mile from North Mountain. By this marriage he had James, Alexander, Donald, John, Fred, Mary and Margaret. This family was, also, noted for their industry and good lives, and especially for their rare qualities of intellect.

The daughter Mary was married to Captain John Maclnnes of West Bay, the daughter Margaret to Reverend John MacFarlane now of Loch Lomond. The son James was a walking store of information and talents, and died comparatively young. He had been, in turn, school teacher, stone-cutter and farmer. The son Alexander was attracted by the noise of the great Canadian Northlands. He went into the Yukon territory when the rush for gold was "catching", was as sociated with Alexander MacDonald, "the Klondike King", acquired some wealth, decided to come home on a visit, got married on the Pacific coast on the way coming, spent a pleasant holiday with the friends at home, and, returning, died at Fort Selkirk where he is buried. The son Donald always stayed with the good old farm, and was beloved of the Country side. He died six years ago. The son John became a Presbyterian Minister of splendid education and eminent parts, was married to Emma Smith, daughter of Mrs. J. W. Smith of Port Hood, and died in the prime of life. The youngest son, Fred, studied law, was admitted to the Bar of Nova Scotia, practised for a time at Port Hood, married Rachael Smith, sister to the Rev. John's wife, went out into the wide West, and is now a Judge of one of the superior courts of British Columbia. Wondrous rural family!

Hugh MacDonald, who came from Rear Hastings, was an old settler on the rearlands here. He was married to Mary MacKenzie and had a family of two sons and two daughters. Shortly after the birth of the youngest of the children Mr. MacDonald died while visiting his people at Christmas time. A violent snow storm of unusual duration followed, and it was a fortnight afterwards the news of his death reached the lonely wife with the helpless little ones. The wife was a good woman of exceptional fortitude, and bore up bravely under the terrible trial. Later on her two boys were drowned, the daughter that was home with the mother died, and the other daughter was in the United States. Still the mother held fast. Putting her trust in her Maker, she resolved to carry on and win an honest living from the farm. She did it.

The history of this portion of the district of West Bay, for the most part is the story of the Scotch people who migrated from the highlands and Islands of Scotland, and to which this description is almost wholly confined. In a special issue of the Richmond County Record by special request, Kenneth Macintosh gives by way of strong circumstantial evidence, almost conclusive proof that at the head of West Bay now the seat of that village was once the site of a ship building plant, that the French had, prior to the Highland Settlement. He describes about the finding of tools of that trade which were of French design, by people who unearthed them while cultivating the soil. There are other indications also, too long to take up space here, proving that the above is true. In a letter written by Rev. Murdoch Stewart to his friend Rev. Mr. Farquharson, Rev. Stewart says: "The first settler, arrived in West Bay in 1813. They were but few in number, and came one or two families at a time, not directly from Scotland; but from Pictou, where some of them lived for a year or two. No doubt all had privations to meet with, on their first arrival, especially the trials of few settlers. One of the greatest hardships, he continues was the difficulty of conveying potatoes (the only food to be had) from the earlier settlements, to the new homes of their owner.

I heard some reference to that he says: "Such as, that one of the first settlers in West Bay carrying on his back,thru the pathless forest bags of potatoes from River Inhabitants to Black River a distance of nine or ten miles. His plan was when he brought, his first load to the height of land between the two places (now West Bay' Highlands) to leave it there, and return for a second load, thus securing a rest while he walked back without a load. On coming to the same place again with the second load, he rested a while, proceeded then with one load and returning later for the other load."

It is related too that the early settlers in this Section of Country suffered much in the matter of clothing and shoes. When it is considered the state of poverty in which many of the first settlers came, how soon their stock of clothing would be worn out, and how long it would be before they could provide clothing from their own sheep and leather from cattle that they could spare to kill. Well, it resolved into this: that many of the first children reared here wore wooden shoes. It can only be imagined how they must have suffered during the long cold Cape Breton winters.

The heavy forests of hardwood and pine on some of the lots of settlers and hardwood and hemlock on others that clothed the lands around the Bras D'Or Lake in the early years of 1800, was almost discouraging to the Highland immigrants. Before land could be cleared and crops grown, a great amount of hard labor had to be performed. The Scotch settler had no knowledge of removing forest.

The people that settled in this district were all Presbyterians, They came from many different places in Scotland, as we will note in this sketch hereinafter. For many years at different periods no clergyman was stationed here; but the spark of Christianity never went out. In a book written by Rev. John Murray we find in 1818 Rev. Dr. MacGregor paid a short visit to this place. In 1824 to 1826 Donald MacDonald conducted considerable service. In 1828 and 1829 Aeneas MacLean and Alexander Farquharson paid visits here. In 1827 Revs. John MacLennan and Donald Allan Fraser spent some time in the congregation. Apart from the foregoing no permanent pastor was here until 1835 when Rev. John Stewart became a settled minister for the West Bay Congregation. In 1843 Rev. Murdoch Stewart became the second stationed minister. He remained until 1867. He lived at Black River. His sons Dr. Thomas Stewart and Dr. John Stewart both of Halifax were born at Black River. There are many more ministers after this date but they are yet within memory of most of us.

In this particular section, the portion of land covered by this sketch, we find two men who taught the Scriptures and offered prayers, namely: John Campbell (Lewis) and John Shaw (Tailor) both pioneers, John Campbell being mentioned again in the particular descriptions of Settlers. These men carried on this work in the absence of clergymen. Today Gaelic services are conducted on several Sabbaths of the Summer months and the familiar Scottish airs of the Pio-neers are still sung. A number of singers called "presenters" are available for these Gaelic services. The open air communion is still in vogue in West Bay Congregation. The largest perhaps due to its fine location is at Black River, held annually in the month of July. Three hills descending to a common base where the tent from which the clergymen preach and communion tables are situated form a natural amphitheatre at the bank of the basin of Black River. Tall trees of spruce are trimmed to a height of about fifteen feet, yet affording perfect shade. Here the Services are in gaelic and the spectator almost feels himself antiquated fifty years.

Education — The first settlers as a rule had some education, some had considerable; but all appear to have had some. Of course the first teachers were those who came from Scotland. At or near the head of the Bay the names of the old Country teachers were: John MacDonald and John Anderson also one Cameron, his christian name not known, but called in gaelic (Little Cameron). Of these, Cameron and Anderson left this Country; but MacDonald located in Grandance, Co. of Richmond where he took up land. The first native teachers were: William MacKenzie and Robert Calder.

William MacKenzie was a son of John MacKenzie an early settler on MacKenzie's Point, described later. Robert Calder was a son of James Calder a pioneer at South Mountain (West Bay). For many years after coming to this district the Settlers had school but a few months at a time and sometimes years elapsing without any school whatever; again schools at that time served for so many miles, that attendance was impossible for some, thus we find often, that the first children born in these early settlements had little or no education whatever.

The years following 1813 saw many immigrants come to Saint Georges Channel Shores (now West Bay) from Scotland. Some of these people came willingly, they wanted to better their conditions and left Scotland with no sadness. Others however left Scotland with the greatest reluctance, to whom love of country and home was a passion. They had no desire to leave the land of their fathers, the Familiar hills and green slopes. The Highland Settlements in fact throughout Cape Breton dates to the time when large estates in Scotland were turned to sheep and cattle ranches, which was more profitable to land Lords than tenants, so, many of our Scotch immigrants were nothing short of being deported to Cape Breton, then a colony of Britain. The settlers around our shores in their adopted land could still boast of their physical surroundings, beauty of landscape, and mountain scenery as well as the uniqueness of its lakes. These people altho they did not make fortunes, made comfortable homes, provided with all necessaries; but few of the luxuries of life. One thing they prized, they owned their own land.

Now we come to the settlers themselves and as far as we can glean, give some brief account of their coming into the district; whence they came and the naming of their descendants some of whom we know more than others; but the amount we say about one more than another, only often indicates lack of knowledge rather than, that one merits more space than an other. Hence beginning at River Inhabitants boundary line we will take up each settler one by one as they adjoined each other, so we thus often describe a more recent settler before describing an early one, and starting at West end of district we will follow eastward.

Alexander Graham and his wife Maggie MacDonald settled in this district in the year 1820. They had a family of seven boys and two girls. Lossiemouth, County of Elgin, Scotland is the place from whence the family came. They settled on a two hundred acre lot — second range of lots from Shores of bay, on the watershed between River Inhabitants and Bras d'Or Lake, now known as Highlands — West Bay. The land was not granted until one of the sons got a grant in 1854 (a son, Alexander was the one). The names of the family a are: John, Donald, Malcolm, Angus, Duncan, Alexander, Annie and Mary, one boy died as a minor. None of the boys married; but both of the girls married. Mary married John MacPherson, the following are the names of their children: Alexander, John, Bell, Maggie,Mary Anne,and one infant who died. Annie married, Hugh MacPherson a brother of her sister's husband and the names of their family are Alex-ander, John, Bell, Maggie, and Annie, one more died when an infant. The two sisters married two brothers they had six children each and five in each family came to maturity and their families' names were the same except that in one family there was a Mary Anne and in the other an Annie only; but its said both were called Annie. These MacPhersons migrated to the New England States many years ago.

All the Graham family are dead since several years, the name of this branch of the family is extinct.

The Grays — The pioneer of this family is Donald Gray and is the one who took up the land along side of the Graham family to the north of same and also situated in second range of lots from shore. Donald Gray came here in the year 1829. His father, Peter Gray came with him, also his mother, a brother named Robert;, his sister-in-law, Rachel MacMillan, and his wife MacMillan. He had one sister Minnie, the wife of John Cameron, "Keper" who was an earlier settler, described hereinafter.

Donald Gray was a native of Lochaber, Scotland, but the immediate years of his life before coming to Cape Breton, were spent in Glasgow, where he and his wife, then his housekeeper ran the hotel known as "Londen House". Donald Gray it is asserted, was well educated; in this country he served as a Magistrate and also as a land surveyor, altho not licensed perhaps. The following are the names of Donald Gray's family: Robert and John, Robert died when a young man. He died in Sydney. John married Mary MacLachlan and occupied the homestead that his father took up. The names of John and Mary Gray's family are: Minnie, Donald and Robert.

Hugh MacKinnon — This pioneer occupied the land adjacent to Donald Gray and on the north side of Gray's lot. This settler came quite early, as none of the family are living we can only assume from outside circumstances about at what time Hugh MacKinnon arrived.

MacLachlan's — The first settler in this case is a woman, Mrs. Donald MacLachlan, before her marriage her name was Mary Cameron. They belonged to Ardnamurchan on the borders of Inverness and Argyle shires Scotland. A place near by is called Glen Lauchlan, evidently where many of this clan were settled. This couple on coming to America first settled in Prince Edward Island at Wood Islands and it would appear stayed there some time. Donald MacLachlan having died, his wife with her young sons and daughters came to Cape Breton. She was bent on acquiring a home. So she took up land and some years later had a grant procured from the early seat of government at Sydney. How she got along we know not; but she surely acted the heroine. The names of the family are: sons, Alexander, Donald Senior, Donald Junior, and Dougald and daughters: Isabel and Margaret.

Alexander married Heneritta MacKenzie of St. George's Channel. The following are the names of their family: John, Donald, William, Dougald, George, Mary, Elizabeth, Margaret, Katherine, Annie and Heneritta.

Donald, Senior married Katherine Cameron. The names of their family are: Archie, Donald, Allan, Dougald, Duncan, Jane, Mary, Annie, Margaret and Katie Bell.

Donald Junior was a ship carpenter having participated in building a vessel at West Bay before he went away. He went away quite young and was married also.

Dougald married, Margaret MacKenzie daughter of John MacKenzie (The Point). The names of their children were: John, Donald, (a Methodist minister) William, Dougald, Mary, Jane, Catherine and Isabell.
Isabell married Alex. MacLellan and Margaret married Angus Matheson.

Murdoch MacLean — This man first settled in Baddeck; but shortly after he married Katherine MacAskill of River Inhabitants he was persuaded to come to West Bay,so just on the west end of this district as did Mrs. Mary MacLachlan he took up a lot of land and along side of the MacLachlan lot. The names of their family are: Annie senior, Annie junior, Margaret, Christy, Bella, Jane Sarah, Katherine, Mary and Donald. Only one member of this family married — Katherine, she married Hugh MacLeod, their family comprise the following Katie Bell, Iena, and Roderick.

John Cameron "Keper" — This settler was one of the first permanent settlers at the head of West Bay. The probable date of his arrival is either 1815 or 1816. He came from Lochaber, Invernessshire, Scotland. His wife was Minnie Gray. They were married before coming to Cape Breton. During his first years spent here, correspondence coming to him from Scotland was coming addressed to Loch End, Cape Breton. Loch End it appears then, was the first name given to the present site of West Bay. John Cameron first settled on the front portion of a lot owned by Angus MacKinnon. MacKinnon being on the rear of his lot. When the matter was adjusted John Cameron took up the land alongside MacKinnon and retained it. He and his sons afterwards acquired several hundred acres where his sons settled. The following are the names of his family: Peter, Senior, John, Peter, Junior, Donald, Robert, Flora, Margaret, Jessie, Annie, Mary, and one other daughter the wife of George Dorey a Jerseyman.

Peter Senior married Effie Calder of Malagawatch. The following are the names of their family: John, William Young, Peter, Mary and Hugh.

John married Isabell MacCall of West Bay. The following are the names of family: Dan, Hugh and John.

Peter Junior, married Effie Calder of Saint George's Channel. The names are as follows: Minnie, Maggie and James.

Robert married Katherine MacLeod. The following are the names of their family: Minnie, Donald, and John.

Flora married George MacKenzie, Malagawach.

John Cameron (Captain) came into this district and settled here in 1817. He was a native of Moidart, Invernessshire, Scotland. He did not come direct from Scotland but from Prince Edward Island, where he spent the best part of a decade. He was situated at Bell Creek on the South Coast where he did a lumber business. After his retirement from the army he got a grant of one thousand acres of land at Bell Creek. At West Bay he granted two hundred acres himself; but got another thousand acres at River Inhabitants — gratis. His wife was Mary Maclsaac. Several of their family were born in Prince Ed-Ward Island. The following are the names of family: Duncan, John, Katherine, Mary, Margaret. Duncan was married twice first to Maggie MacDonald secondly to Janie McDonald. The following are the names of his family: John, Alex, Catherine, Annie, Caroline, and Margaret. John was married to Jessie Cameron. The following are the names of family: John, Duncan, Donald, Thomas, Alexander, Mary, Annie, and Flora. Katherine married Kenneth McKenzie, Stewiacke. The names of family are: Katie, Kenneth and Isabel. Mary married Alex Morrison. The names of family are: Mary, Christy, Isabel, Margaret, Annie, Kate, John, Alex., Dan, Angus and James. Margaret married Donald MacDonald. The names of their family are: Rory, Donald, and Margaret.

Archie MacKillop and his wife Jane MacPhail settled quite early in the district of West Bay. The date of arrival can not be ascertained. None of the children or grandchildren are in Cape Breton now. This couple came from Oban, Argyleshire, and were married before coming. The following are the names of their family: John, Robert, Dan, Hector, Jessie, Helen, Sarah and Katie.

It is of note that their son Dan came to his death in L'Ardoise, County of Richmond in 1847 at the time of the general election of that year. This young man of about seventeen years, had gone to meet his brother who was employed by Creighton a Merchant of Arichat, Creighton was an election officer, probably returning officer for the County so he brought out from Arichat on election day Dan MacKillop's brother to whom Dan was bringing some effects on that day. It is asserted, disputes arose over religious and political matters. At this election all denominations elected were allowed to sit in Parliament. Creighton's men and some of the electorate of that poll disagreed, the outcome of which was that Dan MacKillop was murdered secretly in the forest. Whatever blame is attached to Creighton's following, it is related that young MacKillop was innocent. His remains were brought home by Alexander Maclnnis and Donald MacKenzie nearby neighbors of the MacKillop family. These men went by boat to St. Peters, hauled the boat across the present site of the canal, thence along the coast to L'Ardoise returning by same route.

John MacKillop married Sarah MacKinnon of Whycocomagh. The following are the names of their children: Kenneth, John, Archie, Robena and Hannah.

Peter MacFarlane — This settler came to this district in 1835. He was a native of the Isle of Mull Scotland but settled in Mabou this County for nine years before coming to West Bay — Mull River, South of Mabou proper, was probably the place where he was located. A brother named Pharlane MacFarlane remained in Mabou (the Grandfather of late the James MacFarlane of Orangedale) Peter MacFarlane bought his land from a Morrison family, that came a year or two prior. Before Morrisons came, this land was occupied by MacIntosh, an ancestor of the Macintosh's of Macintosh Mountain. Peter MacFarlane remained here. His wife was, Sarah Buchanan of Oban, Argyleshire. They were married many years before coming to Cape Breton — their family being grown up before migrating. They had two children a daughter and a son namely: Euphemia and Peter. Euphemia married, Alexander MacInnis (next settler described) Peter married Isabell MacKenzie. The following are the names of their family: Duncan, John, James, Dan, Peter, Alexander, Mary, Katie and Sarah.

Alexander MacInnis. — This settler came into the district the same year as did Peter MacFarlane his father in-law and came likewise from Mabou to West Bay in 1835. Alexander MacInnis however did not come to Cape Breton as early as the MacFarlanes.

Alexander MacInnis, belonged to the Isle of Skye altho he did not leave Scotland from that point. At West Bay he bought his land from a blacksmith called Farquhar, who acquired the land one year before Alexander MacInnis' arrival. This settler was allured to West Bay on account of it being a later settlement and he would procure more work in the way of building bridges over rivers and larger streams at which work he had knowledge before leaving Scotland,it being remembered Mabou was settled largely between 1802 and 1810 and a few families arrived there in the late seventeen hundreds according to N.S. Historical Society. Alexander MacInnis, married Euphemia MacFarlane in Scotland before coming to Mabou, where the MacFarlanes were before them i.e. her parents and one brother. The following are the names of their family: Mary, Neil, Dan, John, Peter and Angus Mary was born in Mabou all the rest were born in West Bay. Peter the second youngest son retained the old Peter homestead.

William MacLean — This pioneer came to West Bay in 1832. He came from, Point West Bay, County of Richmond where his Father Donald MacLean was one of the very first settlers around the Bay. William MacLean took up two hundred acres of land and proceeded to turn some from forest to a cultivated place. He married Katherine Logan a native of Sutherlandshire, Scotland. MacLean hailed from the Isle of Lewis. They got married at The Points, West Bay and immediately after their marriage settled at West Bay. The names of their family are: Dan, John, Alexander, Hugh, James, William, Robert, Mary, Hennie, Annie, Catherine and Christy. Alexander retained the homestead.

Dougald Cameron and his wife Mary Murray who located on land joining William MacLean between the years 1835 to 1872 reared a family whose names are: Dougald, Annie, Mary, Dan, Allan, Maggie, Sarah and Katie. This family left in 1872 (all of them).

John MacKenzie (Point) — This pioneer came into West Bay district about 1819. He came from Sutherlandshire, Scotland via Pictou also his brother came to St. George's Channel at the same time (William) the grandfather of principal George MacKenzie, Dr. John MacKenzie and Rev. William J MacKenzie, missionary to Korea. Well, John MacKenzie and his sons possessed and granted in all over six hundred acres of land called MacKenzie Point, a peninsula of West Bay Waters. He was married to Katherine Calder a sister of James Calder (next settler taken up). The following are the names of their family: Donald, Robert, William, Alexander, John Robert, James, John William, Margaret, Hennie, Isabell and Margaret. Marriages of the latter and names of their children. Donald married Flora Cameron the following are names of their family: John J., Alexander, Maggie, Annie, Mary, Jane, Catherine Bell and James. Robert married Catherine Campbell, their family are: John Robert, Euphemia, James, John William, Alexander, Donald, George, Bella, Annie, Catherine. William married Bell Cameron, their family are: Nehemiah, Mary Jane, Kate. Maggie Jane, John James and Joseph. Alexander married Miss Blaude a woman of dutch descent they had a family of two boys: John and George. Margaret married, Dougald MacLachlan see names of their family in Sketch of MacLachlan family. Hennie married John Johnstone of Lake Ainslie, the names of their family are: Annie, Katherine, Phemie, Maggie, Katie, Louise, John and Norman. Isabell married Peter MacFarlane see names of their family in description of MacFarlane's.

James Calder.— This settler came to St. Georges Channel about the year 1819. He came from Sutherlandshire, Scotland. He landed in Pictou where he remained a short time, before coming to Cape Breton. His wife was Margaret MacKay also of Sutherlandshire. Their children were Margaret and Robert. Margaret was born in Pictou, Robert at St. George's Channel, Co. Richmond. James Calder was married a second time to Barbara MacKenzie, names of their family are: William, Donald, Hugh, Maggie, Euphemia and Bell, James Calder went to St. Anne's Victoria County to join Rev. Norman MacLeod to Australia in 1851; but died at St. Anne's before the expedition started.

Robert Calder married Mary MacLeod. They had one son John (Barrister at Law, Montreal). His second marriage was to Katherine MacRae. The following are the names of their family: James, Alex. Donald, John (Presbyterian Minister), Fred (Lawyer, now Judge), Mary and Maggie. Robert Calder came into this district about the year 1850 and settled at Marshes West Bay. He bought land from MacPhersons a family in that settlement.

John MacLeod (Marshes). — This pioneer's, date of arrival is not exactly known, however he was the first settler by a few years in that locality. In Rev. John Murray's History of the Presbyterian Church in Cape Breton, we find where John MacLeod, conveyed Rev. Dr. MacGregor a part of the way to Strait of Canso when MacGregor had finished his tour of River Inhabitants and West Bay(St.George's Channel) in the year 1818. The Ross family came into this district in 1817; but John MacLeod was here some time previous. John MacLeod and his sons took up eight hundred acres of land in one block. MacLeod himself settling at Marshes proper — a large tract of exceedingly level land at shore between two streams. John MacLeod was a native of the Isle of Lewis. He married Katherine MacLeod. It is asserted they got married in Pictou where they first landed after coming to Nova Scotia. The following are the names of their family: John, Angus, Donald, Philip, Margaret, Katherine, Mary, Sarah, Annie and Christy. John married Maggie MacDonald issue: Philip, John, Donald, Euphemia, Annie, Peggie, and Mary. Angus married, Mary MacDonald, issue: Dan, John Dan, Maggie, Sarah, Mary, Isabell, Christy and Katherine. Donald, married Christy MacPhie, issue: Kenneth, Catherine, Philip, Angus, Dan, John, Alex Mary, John Sr. and Philip Sr. Philip married Mary Ross, issue: Alex, John Dan, Mary, John Jr., Annie, James, Katie and Philip John Jr., Dan Jr., Alex. Malcolm, Angus, Katie and Kenneth. Mary married Robert Calder already mentioned. Katherine married James MacPherson.

Philip the youngest son of John MacLeod retained the old homestead.

John Campbell (Lewis) —This settler as the suffix to his name (and by which he was always called in gaelic) suggests, came from the Isle of Lewis, Scotland. He was a Sailor by profession and made several trips to Nova Scotia before he settled here. He was engaged as a sailor on immigrant ships. Finally he made up his mind to settle in Cape Breton. At Lime Hill this district he chose a site but found the place so rocky that he abandoned it. Next he came on what was afterwards called Ballams Grant, adjoining John MacLeod's property, but on being advised by MacLeod that one Cameron had a lease on that property for salt, he decided not to be an encumberance there, so John MacLeod advised him to settle at the west end of his property which he did. He remained here. He married Maggie MacUspie The following are the names of John Campbell's family: Murdoch, Donald, Angus, Christy, and Maggie. Donald married, Kate Macintosh, Angus married Annie Macintosh and Christy married Donald Campbell, Malagawatch.

Hugh MacKinnon came into the district of West Bay in 1816 or earlier. He came from the Ilse of Tiree Scotland. He took up about two hundred acres of land; but did not grant it. His wife was Jessie Campbell of Grandance, Co. Richmond. The following are the names of their family: Ellen, Mary, Malcolm, Archie and Alex. Archie married Rebecca Stevens, issue: Robert, John, Maggie and Minnie. Alex, married: Katie MacLeod issue nine daughters (names not known now) Angus MacKinnon came into West Bay in 1816 or earlier (at same time as his brother Hugh McKinnon) He came from Tiree, Scotland. He acquired about two hundred acres of land. He married Kate Campbell. The following are the names of all his family: Mary, Annie Maggie, Bell, John, Malcolm, Kenneth and Alexander (This family left here about 60 yrs. ago).

Hector MacInnis and John MacInnis (brother's) operated and founded a Wood Working Factory, employing many men in their forge and carriage business. They did business under the name of H. & J. MacInnis. These men came to West Bay when young, from district of Sunny Brae, Pictou County. They also did a general Merchandise business. Daniel Forbes like the MacInnis' came from Pictou, a wheelwright by trade and remained here permanently since, and has been connected with West Bays' industries right thru the whole Chapter. Angus MacPhie a blacksmith by trade also a native of Pictou County — district of Sunny Brae, first settled at Black River,later he located at West Bay where he operated a forge, a carriage shop, fulling Mill and Saw Mill. He also started the Tanning business afterwards bought by The Leonards and for many years maintained by them. Hon. James MacDonald, formerly of Whycocomagh this County did, it is supposed, the largest retail business in rural Cape Breton at West Bay. Hector MacLean, a native of Port Hastings district, this County bought out a tanning business started a few years before MacLeans' coming here. Hector McLean remained permanently doing business for many years.

Captain John MacInnis a native of this place, son of Alexander MacInnis, a pioneer already described. Capt. John MacInnis carried on a general business after his retirement from sea.

Thomas M. Leonard and Sons did a tanning business for many years. Thomas M. Leonard was a native of North Sydney. His sons: Charles and Herbert were his partners.

Today in 1922 there are not any indications of any of these business enterprises ever having existed. They all went down, without a single exception. The causes in some are understood. In others the change of conditions of manufacturing explains a whole lot, why all went down cannot be comprehended.

So, now West Bay is nothing more than a rural Settlement of average circumstances. There are yet hopes that she may come up, her geographic situation at head of Bras d'Or Lakes is good and in close proximity to Railway.

(The foregoing pages of an excellent sketch of the west end of the W. B. District was kindly contributed by A. A. MacInnis, Esq. a worthy native of the place. Ed.)

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