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Art in Scotland
Chapter XVII

NEXT in importance to Edinburgh, the city of Glasgow claims a position in regard to the more recent culture and advancement of art in Scotland. Of the early practice of painting in this city there are neither traces nor remains. It could not have been otherwise, when we consider the recent growth of the city, and the position which it occupied up till the middle of last century. Although possessing favourable specimens of the art of the early architect, which, with the exception of the majestic and venerable cathedral, have all been swept away to make room for modem improvements, there are no vestiges of the art of the draughtsman or of the painter till within quite a recent time. When the services of the cathedral church were held with all the ecclesiastical splendour of the princely Bishop John Cameron, among the numerous relics there is no mention even of painted labulce, banners, or screens, so frequent in inventories of other similar establishments, and probably the only specimens of painted art were then confined to the missals in the cathedral, the heraldic bosses on its groined ceilings, and its stained glass. Among the plate and other valuables of the church which were taken by Archbishop James Beaton to France in 1560, when that ecclesiastic was frightened by the progress of the Reformation in Scotland, are enumerated a gold image of the Saviour, images in silver of the twelve apostles, crosiers and caskets of the precious metals, with bones and other relics of the saints, besides two chartularies, one of which, called the Red Book of Glasgow, was written in the reign of Robert M. These valuables were deposited partly in the Scotch College and partly in the Chartreuse in Paris, and cannot now be expected to be recovered. Whatever of art then existed, must have perished from the zeal of the Reformers when the order of 16o was issued from Edinburgh for the destruction of images and the purgation of the kirks in Scotland, and probably little was left to save but the building itself, when in IC) the craftsmen turned out so energetically to resist its destruction.

Reference has already been made to a "painted brod" with the image of our Lady, in a legal action for its disputed possession by a private citizen in 1574, and which may possibly have been at one time connected with the cathedral. At a later period the Burgh Records, under date of 12th June 1641, contain a note of some local interest: "On the said day ordainis the threasaurer to have ane warrand to pay to James Colquhoun fyve dollars for drawing of the portraict of the town to be sent to Holland," possibly then intended for Blaeu's 'Atlas,' published later on at Amsterdam. Of the latter part of that century there are several portraits still preserved in and about the neighbourhood of Glasgow, of natives of the place, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that some of these may have been the result of native skill, of however humble a kind. Besides, it is not unlikely that the example of George Jamesone of Aberdeen, previously practising inEdinburgh, had some influence in the growing commercial city of Glasgow. The classes opened by the brothers Foulis in the University in 1753, and continuing till 1775, gave the first impetus to the study of art in Glasgow; but the unpropitious nature of the time caused it to die away, only producing occasional portraits by unknown artists for many succeeding years. Andrew Cochran, one of the pupils of the Printers' Academy, was a solitary exception, and has been already mentioned in connection with that institution. In the year 1776 the patrons of Hutcheson's Hospital unanimously agreed to request Andrew Cochrane, Esq., the preceptor to the Hospital, "for his long and faithful services to the public

to sitt in order to get his picture drawn, to be hung up in the laich council chamber;" but whether this was painted by his namesake or not is unknown, the portrait having long ago disappeared.' The name of J. Henhan, Glasgow, appears opposite a portrait in the London Academy Exhibition catalogue of 1813; but till well on into the present century there is little or nothing relating to art in Glasgow, when one or two portrait-painters appeared and painted a number of well-known citizens - Peter Paillou,2 from London, and an American, Chester Harding, being the most extensively employed. For the time, there is no doubt that the Trustees' Academy instituted in Edinburgh in 1760 was sufficient for the art educational requirements of Scotland, and that the 1808 and succeeding exhibitions of the Incorporated Artists, also in the capital, were as much as local encouragement could support; but an appreciation of other branches of art besides that of portraiture, no doubt existed to some extent in Glasgow, which was fostered by the scenery of the Theatre Royal, painted by Alexander Nasmyth and his family, of superior excellence. For the same Theatre, Clarkson Stanfield was also early employed, as well as David Roberts, at the rate of thirty shillings per week, in 1819; and this artist and W. L. Leitch bear testimony to the very high quality of the stock scenery.

It was probably due to the establishment of the exhibitions by the Royal Institution in Edinburgh in 1819, and the dissatisfaction of the artists who subsequently formed the Scottish Academy, that a desire was felt in Glasgow to possess something of the same kind; and on the ist of March 1821, an "Institution for Promoting and Encouraging the Fine Arts in the West of Scotland" was formed by a body of forty -three gentlemen, prominent among whom were the Lord Provost, J. T. Alston; John Buchanan, M.P.; James Ewing; Kirkman Finlay; Monteith of Carstairs; and Smith of Jordanhill. Its first exhibition was opened in August of the same year, in a gallery connected with the shop of Mr Robert Finlay, carver and gilder, at 2 South Maxwell Street, containing 253 works, the principal attractions in which were the works of John Graham (-Gilbert); Andrew Donaldson, one of the earliest water-colour painters in Scotland; Howard, RA.; D. O. Hill; Andrew Henderson, a local portrait-painter, author of a book of Scottish Proverbs; and John Fleming of Greenock, who did many of the drawings for Joseph Swan's 'Lakes of Scotland,' &c. : Daniel Macnee made his debut by a pen-drawing of cottages, and some of the small bas-reliefs of John Henning added an interest to the collection. The second exhibition, opened in May of the following year, contained some eighty-eight fewer works—the name of James Tannock, who had seven years previously begun to exhibit in London, being added to the list. It is doubtful if these exhibitions were continued—probably the supply of pictures was insufficient from local practitioners—and in 1825 about ten or twelve gentlemen formed the nucleus of the Dilettanti Society. The origin of this resulted from the occasional meeting of Andrew Henderson, James Davie, and Dr William Young; and the Society was the object of some ridicule in its infancy, which, however, did not hinder it from growing into sufficient maturity to venture its first exhibition in 1828, in rooms on the east side of the Argyle Arcade, entering by a stair near to Argyle Street. Judged by the standard of later exhibitions, this, like its predecessors, could of course only have been of very inferior quality, but the presence of one or two names must have given it a certain prestige: John Graham's head of Rebecca was noticed for the qualities of grace and colour in which that artist always excelled; Horatio MacCulloch, who had just returned from Edinburgh at the age of twenty-three, contributed four works; Daniel Macnee, who was just merging into practice a little over twenty years of age, began to give promise of future excellence; and among the twenty local artists also contributing were John D. Gibson (portrait), Andrew Henderson, William Brown, Andrew Donaldson, and John Gilfihlan. Edinburgh art was represented by George Harvey, William Simson, John Ewbank, and John Steell the sculptor. It contained 303 works, and was sufficiently successful to warrant the Society repeating those of the following years. The president at this time was Dr William Young, one of its promoters, the office of vice- president being held by David Hamilton, to whom Glasgow owes much as an architect for the beauty of many of its buildings. The exhibitions continued to be held in the same rooms, which were extended to three apartments in 1830, in which year the name of Mr Smith of Jordanhill appears as president. John Graham (-Gilbert) on this occasion showed five works; Daniel Macnee, then living in Union Street, ten; Horatio MacCulloch, four; W. L. Leitch sent one from Mauchline; and busts were contributed by Fletcher of Edinburgh, and the still surviving Mr John Moss- man, H.R.S.A., of Glasgow. The fourth exhibition, being the last which was held in the Arcade rooms, contained 400 works, twenty-four of which were sculptures by Fillans, Park, Ritchie, &c., the largest number hitherto attained, and offered superior attractions in the possession of four pictures exhibited by George Harvey, including his :covenanter's Baptism, and one work by the poetic David Scott. The fifth exhibition, that of 1832, found the Society located in rooms at 5 r Buchanan Street, where they were continued till its eleventh year, in 1838, when they ceased for want of patronage. During these years numerous fine works were exhibited, the average number at each exhibition being 327; and the catalogues of the various years contain, in addition to many of those mentioned, the names of William Allan, Runciman, Wilkie, Geddes, David Cox, Copley Fielding, Roberts, and Turner. The following note appears in one of the catalogues:

On the opening of the Glasgow tenth exhibition, the directors offer their acknowledgments for the manner in which the attempts to establish an annual exhibition of the fine arts of Glasgow has hitherto been patronised. The establishment of these exhibitions is removed as far as possible from mercenary motives, and the Society will be satisfied if the receipts equal the expenditure. If there be a surplus, it shall be disposed of for the promotion of the fine arts. The members of the Glasgow Dilettanti Society hope that their exertions to excite a taste for the fine arts in this part of Scotland may be successful, and they trust the amount of sales will show that their exertions are approved of and appreciated." Its last presidents were John Houldsworth in 1837, and James 0. Anderson in 1838.

During the course of these exhibitions, in the spring of 1833, an exhibition was held in the Dilettanti rooms, of pictures by John Graham-Gilbert, numbering 103 works, consisting mostly of portraits.

Early in the year 1840, a movement was set on foot to revive the exhibitions, which resulted in the formation of the West of Scotland Academy. The movement originated among the local artists, and its foundation was mainly due to the efforts of Mr John Mossman the sculptor, and the late J. A. Hutchison, drawing-master in the High School, who was its secretary from first to last. Its first exhibition was held in the rooms previously occupied by the Dilettanti Society, and membership was constituted by three classes, paying twenty-five, ten, and five guineas, with corresponding privileges; the artist members paying three, and one and a half guineas, ranking respectively as Academicians and Associates of the Academy. In subsequent catalogues it is stated that the Academy possessed a body of laws and regulations in 1841; but whatever rules had been made were never properly embodied: this note was thus inserted with some idea Of giving the exhibition importance, and with the always deferred intention of the members to have it done.

An Association (Art Union) for promoting the Fine Arts in Glasgow and the West of Scotland was now instituted; and this formed a valuable auxiliary to the exhibitions, having purchased to the extent of nearly £3000 in the first two years of the Academy's existence. In prefacing the second exhibition, that of 1842, the following note appears: "In opening their second annual exhibition, the members of the West of Scotland Academy feel that the success of the first exhibition, and the unprecedented success of the Association for Promoting the Fine Arts, ought to have been to them a great inducement to exertion; and however short of their own expectations they may have come, they trust that the present exhibition, the character of the works of art exhibited, and the addition of a room to their gallery, will evince to their fellow-citizens that the artists have endeavoured to deserve a continuance of that support which they now gratefully acknowledge." The Society at this time consisted of thirteen Academicians and three Associates, John Graham-Gilbert, R.S.A., being the permanent president. These exhibitions, which were continued till the year 1853, were latterly held in rooms in the Argyle Arcade, and probably the best of the series was that Of 1850, containing two portraits by Raeburn, a Landscape by Turner, a Venetian Scene by Muller, Jesus and the Disciples at Emmaus by R. S. Lauder, two pictures by MacCulloch, and Edinburgh after Flodden by Barker; local art being represented by John Graham-Gilbert, J. Milne Donald, A. D. Robertson, D. Munro, and T. Knott, in addition to water-colours by Sam Bough, Copley Fielding, Penley, and Richardson—and sculpture by George Mossman. The hanging of this exhibition, always a most unsatisfactory labour, caused a great amount of local discontent, one of the exhibitors allowing his indignation to carry him so far as to daub his picture over with mortar, a process which may have attracted attention to the picture, but could scarcely have added to the appearance of the wall.

This Academy did not allow its exhibitions to cease without some efforts on the part of its committee for their continuance. Several of the members were certain of ultimate success, if they could hold on for a few years, and proposals were made to endeavour to obtain premises of their own, one being that they should purchase a small block of building at the south-west corner of Buchanan and St Vincent Streets, then valued at £2000. One of the most earnest advocates of this proposal was John Graham-Gilbert, who offered, in the event of its turning out a failure, to take the entire risk on himself; but unfortunately the members were too timid. Had they entered into the scheme, the enormous increase on the value of the site in after-years would have placed the Academy and its exhibitions on such a footing as for the future to relieve them of all pecuniary embarrassments. The town council were afterwards approached with a view to afford facilities to the Academy for having the exhibitions held in the Corporation rooms, when that body appointed a sub-committee to confer with the treasurer of the Academy. This committee, however, declined to allow them the use of the rooms, except on condition that the town council should receive all the income: the exhibitors were expected to pay all the expenditure, the latter body being supposed entitled to enjoy this privilege in return for being thus afforded a mart for the sale of their pictures. The affairs of the Academy were not finally wound up till 1886, when the small remnant of its funds and its limited library were handed over, with the consent of the few survivors, to the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts.

Efforts, however, had in the meantime been made to get up annual exhibitions. On the 3oth September 1851 a public meeting was held to promote the establishment of an Institute of the Fine Arts, the chief agitators in which were the Lord Provost, Sir James Campbell, Mr Napier the engineer, and Mr A. M'Lellan. A numerous committee was appointed to obtain plans for a building and draw up regulations. The plans, however, were found unsuitable, both in regard to external design and internal accommodation, and the matter in consequence lay in abeyance. Funds were awanting, and in 1854-55 efforts were made by means of exhibitions to raise money without success, although good pictures by important artists were exhibited, notably Wilkie, Stanfield, Constable, Etty, Dubufe, Gudin, &c. A new and less ambitious effort was made later on, resulting in the formation of the present Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, which opened its first exhibition in the Corporation Galleries in iSGx, the rent for which was defrayed from the proceeds of the exhibitions. On account of an intimation, after some years, from the town council, that these rooms must cease to be available for this purpose, the Institute determined to obtain premises of its own, and in the year 1880 opened its exhibition in the present Galleries in Sauchiehail Street, which the members built for the purpose, but very heavily burdened with bonds. In order partly to relieve the large annual interest on this debt, the council found it necessary a few years ago to sell several pictures which it had from time to time acquired towards the formation of a permanent collection; these included specimens of Sam Bough, Oakes, Long, Yeames, Andrew Gow, &c., &c. This Art Institute has rendered the most important services to art in Scotland, and has all along been thoroughly well managed. It is now in a better position, and looks forward to a further augmentation of its members, in order to develop its full intentions, not only by continuing to afford accommodation for the annual exhibitions, but also to stock an art library, and otherwise aid in the advancement of art generally. Membership is constituted by a single payment of £10 or £25, with corresponding privileges: a third class, contributing a payment of £5 also exists, but this list was closed some years ago. A good Art Club also exists in Glasgow, which, from an obscure beginning by a few young local artists in 1867, has now attained a respectable position.

In the year 1855 an exhibition, which owed its existence to the efforts of twelve local architects, was held in Bath Street, with a view to the establishment of a permanent museum. Like its predecessors, it was a financial failure, and not over-well managed at the beginning. It included examples of the arts and manufactures connected with architecture. Among the works exhibited were groups by Thomas the sculptor; a vase executed by Triqueti for the late King of France; a marble group by the same artist; enamels, metal, and other works, lent by the Duke of Hamilton, Mr Campbell of Blythswood, Henry Glassford Bell, &c.; besides specimens of furniture, stained glass, wall decorations, and architectural designi It also contained about sixty drawings by David Roberts, a View of Athens by Grecian Williams, Rome by Andrew Wilson, pencil drawings of Roman remains in Africa made by Abyssinian Bruce between 1765 and 1766, and one hundred and fifty architectural drawings lent by Dr Puttrick of Leipzig.

In the following year the important collection of paintings forming the basis of the Corporation collection passed into the possession of the city. Mr Archibald M'Lellan, a coachbuilder, and town councillor and magistrate of Glasgow, had during the course of about thirty years acquired an important collection, chiefly by the old masters, for which he built a suite of three galleries in Sauchiehall Street. These he bequeathed to his native city; but on his death in 1854 his affairs were found to be in such a condition, that to take advantage of the bequest it became necessary to purchase the galleries with their contents for £44,500. When the purchase was discussed in the town council in 1856, the resolution was only carried by a majority of five, forty-three voting, objections being taken to the nude figures in the collection, and to the alleged fact that Mr M'Lellan was in the habit of himself " improving" the pictures, one of the council characterising it as a collection of rubbish. Although there was some modicum of truth in each of these objections, the council wisely agreed to the purchase, and £15,000 were paid for the pictures and a few pieces of sculpture, and £29,500 for the galleries. By the bequest of Mr William Ewing, eighty-seven works were added; and one hundred and thirty-six by the late Mrs J. Graham-Gilbert, consisting largely of pictures by her husband. The total number of works now stands at six hundred and twenty-six. The collection has been twice weeded, neither too wisely nor too well.' Many of the pictures have been severely restored; but notwithstanding this, the collection is a very noble although somewhat mixed one, and is well cared for. A few recent additions have been made, one of the latest of which, acquired by purchase, might well have been dispensed with.

In the Glasgow Corporation Galleries, as the original M'Lellan collection is now designated, the Dutch and late Flemish artists are well represented. Among the more important works may be mentioned a view of the town of Katwyck near Scheveningen, seen under a dull cloud, with the sea in the distance, a fine example of Ruysdael; the Virgin and Child with a St George and other Saints, by Paris Bordone; the Woman taken in Adultery, attributed to Giorgione; a moderate-sized Holy Family, assigned to the early period of Titian (very much restored); a capital specimen of Mabuse in his very best manner; a Virgin and Child by Murillo, from the collection of Lucien Bonaparte (retouched); and a large panel-picture of the Madonna enthroned and surrounded by Saints and Angels with musical instruments, assigned with much probability to the early period of Giorgione. The latter very noble picture was attributed to Bellini at the sale of the Solly collection, where it was retained unsold at the reserve price Of 500 guineas before passing into the possession of Mr M'Lellan. Among the British pictures are good examples of Reynolds, Richard Wilson, Thomas Duncan, Creswick, &c. A number of portraits formerly in the old Town Hall, by Scougal, Ramsay, &c., are now located there.

The University of the same city also possesses a fairly good collection of the old masters, which was formed by the celebrated Dr Hunter, who founded the Hunterian Museum. Many of the pictures were selected by Sir Robert Strange the engraver. Prominent among the works are a beautiful landscape of much restrained power by Philip de Koninck; an Entombment by Rembrandt; a strange and wild conception of Laomedon by Salvator; a head of St Peter by Rubens; a well-executed study of • Dead Stag, &c., by Snyders; a Female Saint by Domenichino; • somewhat feeble Christ as the Good Shepherd by Murillo; and a spirited portrait of Dr Hunter from the brush of Sir Joshua Reynolds.

For some years past efforts have been made in almost every town in Scotland of any importance for the institution of art associations and annual exhibitions, many of which have ceased for various causes, the chief of which has been an insufficient income. The famous old town of Stirling, so celebrated in Scottish history, owes to the munificence of the late Thomas Stewart Smith the handsome building known as the Smith Institute, which was opened on the xith August 1874. Mr Smith, who practised as an artist for many years at home and abroad without making any great impression on the public, came into possession about 188 of the estate of Glassingall, after which he comfortably settled down to enjoy the life of a Scottish laird. Soon, however, getting tired of this, he sold the estate and went to London in order to indulge in his favourite artistic pursuits; and taking a studio in Fitzroy Square, gathered round him his old friends with whom he had formerly associated at Rome. Before his last Continental visit he intimated to the Corporation of Stirling, that if they would grant a suitable site for the purpose, he would bear the expense of erecting a suite of rooms, supplying accommodation for picture-galleries, museum, and a reading-room. For this purpose he bequeathed a sum of £22,000 under trustees, together with a large collection of pictures, including many of his own. He died at Avignon on the 31st December 1869, and the building was erected from the designs of Mr Lessels of Edinburgh. The late eminent Sir William Stirling-Maxwell of Keir officiated at the opening, and with several others inaugurated the Institute by a loan collection of ancient and modern pictures. The permanent collection contains many excellent examples, including works by J. D. Harding, Sam Bough, William Hunt, John Phillip, David Cox, &c. Annual exhibitions were commenced about 1880, but after some years were discontinued.

Close to the quiet old town of Cuiross, on the shores of the Firth of Forth, is the castle of Dunimarle, which with its grounds was bequeathed to the public by Mrs Sharpe-Erskine, who died ist March 187 2. This venerable lady was the youngest daughter, and the last surviving, of the family of General Sir William Erskine of Torrie, and sister of Sir James Erskine, the donor of the Torrie bequest to the Scottish National Gallery. She included in the bequest a small but choice collection of paintings, chiefly of the Flemish school, besides many other works of art collected by herself and her brother, and over 4000 volumes constituting a library of reference. This is known as the Erskine of Torrie Institute, and its maintenance is further provided for in the bequest intrusted to the care of trustees.

Among other art institutions may be mentioned the Fine Art Association of Kirkcaldy, which may be said to have led the way among the smaller towns in the institution of annual exhibitions in 1872. Of late, however, its exhibitions have been discontinued, chiefly for want of proper rooms. The town of Paisley, which possesses an appreciative population, possesses permanent art galleries, due to the munificence of Sir Peter Coats, and has an Art Institute holding annual exhibitions and occasional conversazioni. Dundee, one of the most enterprising of the Scottish towns, had an exhibition in 1857, visited by nearly 7000 people, followed by another ten years later on the occasion of the visit of the British Association: this contained 621 works of art, many by eminent artists, and was unusually well attended. A special exhibition was held at the opening of the picture-gallery wing of the Albert Institute in 1873-74, which included a collection of art works from South Kensington; and the permanent annual exhibitions commenced in the same building in 1877, the sales amounting during the most successful year (1882) to £8200. During the ten years in which the exhibitions have been in operation, works to the annual average value of over £5000 have been purchased in a town having 'a population of 142,000. It also possesses the nucleus of a permanent collection, consisting of seventy-one works donated by Messrs Daiglish, Orchar, Keiller, &c., and a movement is now being made to enlarge the galleries to accommodate the annual exhibitions.' Greenock started exhibitions in 1863, which, however, only lasted four or five years. As a rule, these were of marked excellence considering the size of the place, and among the loan pictures contributed were good examples of David Scott, Sir J. Noel Paton, T. Duncan, Herdman, Graham-Gilbert, and other prominent artists.

In recent years art clubs for the purposes of study and social intercourse among artists have sprung up nearly everywhere. There is, however, a very evident danger to the future of art in the present plethora of exhibitions, to which artists, especially the younger ones, in their desire to contribute and effect sales, may be led into the hasty production of unimportant works, instead of putting out all their strength on those which will lead to a greater reward in the future.

One of the many developments of the commercial spirit of the present century is the Art Union scheme, by which numerous contributors of small sums become purchasers of a limited number of works of art, which are afterwards balloted for; some of the associations allotting certain sums in place of pictures, &c., the winners of which are bound by the conditions to select one or more works of art, upon which the whole value of the prize sum must be expended. In addition to these prizes, the more important associations give to each of their subscribers an engraving, folios, photographs, &c., representing a portion of the subscription money, the balance of which goes to the acquisition of prizes and the expenses of the general management. By these means numerous pictures pass from the walls of exhibitions into the possession of many who could never otherwise acquire a good work of art, to the mutual benefit of the artist and subscribers, and also to that of the exhibitions from which the prizes are selected. As exhibitions have sprung up in almost every town of any importance, art unions have become almost equally numerous, the yearly subscriptions to which range from one shilling to one guinea. The many very excellent engravings, photographs, statuettes, &c., disseminated by this means have done much to cultivate a taste for art; and being only legal by the sanction of the Board of Trade, have been generally well managed.

The first of the kind in Britain was the Royal Association for Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland, which owed its origin to the suggestion of D. O. Hill, R.S.A., afterwards taken up by (Sir) John Steell, R.S.A., and Sheriff Glassford Bell, the last mentioned of whom first made it public and devised a constitution. It was founded in the year 1833-34, and received its charter of incorporation in 1848. The annual subscription to this Association is one guinea, each subscriber receiving an engraving, or set of engravings, for the year to which he subscribes. After allowance for this and working expenses, pictures are purchased by the directors from the exhibition of the Royal Scottish Academy, afterwards balloted for distribution among the fortunate subscribers.' In conformity with the regulations included in the charter, a percentage (not exceeding ten per cent) of the gross amount of the annual subscriptions is set apart each year towards the purchase of a modern work of art, to be deposited in the National Gallery of Scotland, which, however, remains the property of the Association.

At the year 1842, this Association had realised since it foundation upwards of £31,000, of which sum about £22,000 had been expended in the purchase of paintings and sculpture, and £9000 appropriated to the dissemination of engravings and the necessary machinery to awaken and keep alive an interest in the proceedings of the Association, and of art throughout the country. The subscriptions at that time amounted to between £6000 and £7000, which have since considerably diminished, owing very probably to the number of similar associations constituted since that time. In the year 1859, after a quarter of a century of its existence, the subscriptions amounted to £4476, and up till that date the large sum of £1o6,000 had been expended in the purchase of works of art. During the last year (1886-87) the subscriptions amounted to £3298, 1s., out of which £996, 11s. 6d. were expended on forty- eight works of art as prizes, and "the sum now at the credit of the National Gallery Fund amounts to £457, 5s. 3d., inclusive of the percentage on the gross amount of this year's subscriptions, which has been fixed at one-half per cent, in compliance with the Association's charter of incorporation."'

Among the more notable of the sixteen works deposited by the Association in the Scottish National Gallery may be mentioned R. Scott Lauder's Christ teaching Humility, purchased in 1849 for £220; Sir Noel Paton's Quarrel of Oberon and Titania, in 1850, £700; Dawn revealing the New World to Columbus, 1855, £315; Drummond's Porteous Mob, 186, £160; MacCulloch's Inverlochy Castle, 1857, £200; Phillip's Spanish Boys playing at Bull-fighting, 1867, £900; Hutchison's Marble Bust of Pasquiccia, 1870, £105; Herdman's Scene after the Battle, 1871, £270, 5s.; and G. Paul Chalmers's Legend, 1878, £525.2 The engravings supplied to the subscribers are usually of a very high quality, generally illustrative of Scottish scenery and literature; and the very highest praise cannot but be awarded to such works as the Dowie Dens of Yarrow and others similar.

In the year 1837, a new Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Scotland was started on somewhat similar lines, with this difference, that the amount of annual subscriptions was divided into various sums, which, being appropriated among the members by ballot, each holder of a prize exercised his individual judgment in the purchase of a picture, the price of which had to include the amount of the prize, from the exhibition of the Scottish Academy. The subscription to this was also one guinea, and prize. holders were not allowed to divide the value of the prize in the purchase of more than one work of art. To this Association the subscribers for the year 1837-38 amounted to 340; in 1839, 811; in 1840, 1011; in 1841, 1228; and in 1842, 1290-at which date its title was altered to the Art Union of Scotland. The engraving which was issued for the last-mentioned year was by Robert Bell, from the picture of the Expected Penny by Alex. Fraser, A.R.S.A. (the elder), followed by Andrew Sommerville's Flowers of the Forest. It has now ceased to exist.

As was naturally to be expected, the example of Edinburgh was soon followed elsewhere, and in Glasgow, about the year 1841, there was formed a short-lived Association of a similar kind for the West of Scotland. Its object was to foster the exhibitions of the West of Scotland Academy, and it was so far successful that within the first two years of its existence its subscriptions amounted to nearly £3000. On this Association the Glasgow Art Union was formed a few years later, the rules of which were based upon those of the London Art Union. The subscription was fixed at one guinea, prints were issued to the subscribers, and the managers, as in the case of the first and still existing Association in Edinburgh, purchased the prizes for distribution. This Art Union is still existing.

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